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Chapter 9-2. Industrialization: Case Study of Manchester. Goals and Objectives. Upon completion students should be able to: Describe the social and economic effects of industrialization Evaluate the growing tensions between middle and working classes.

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chapter 9 2
Chapter 9-2
  • Industrialization: Case Study of Manchester
goals and objectives
Goals and Objectives

Upon completion students should be able to:

  • Describe the social and economic effects of industrialization
  • Evaluate the growing tensions between middle and working classes.
  • Identify positive effects of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Describe Manchester as an industrial city.


Factory Work

-Factories pay more than farms.

-This led to the demand for more expensive goods

Changes Life

industrial cities rise
Industrial Cities Rise
  • Urbanization-The rise of population and movement of people leading to the growth of cities
  • Growing population provided workforce and market for factory goods.
british industrial cities
British Industrial cities:
  • The most industrialized cities were London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool
living conditions
Living Conditions
  • Sickness widespread; epidemics, like cholera, sweep urban slums
  • Life span in one large city is only 17 years
  • Wealthy Merchants, factory owners live in
  • luxurious suburban homes
conditions in urban cities
Conditions in urban cities
  • Rapidly growing cities lacked sanitary conditions or building codes
  • Cities also lacked adequate housing, education, police and fire protection.
working conditions
Working Conditions
  • Average working day 14 hours for 6 days a week, year round
  • Dirty, poorly lit factories injure workers
  • Many coal miners killed by coal dust
  • Women and children were often exploited in work places.
the middle class
The Middle Class
  • Middle Class-skilled workers, merchants, rich farmers, professionals
  • Emerging middle class is looked down upon by landowners, aristocrats
  • Middle class has comfortable standard of living
the working class
The Working Class
  • Laborers’ lives not improved;
  • some laborers replaced by machines

Luddites, other groups destroyed machinery that puts them out of work

Unemployment a serious problem; unemployed riot

positives of the industrial revolution
Positives of the industrial revolution
  • Created jobs, enriches nation, encourages technological progress
  • Education expands, clothing cheaper, diet and housing improve
  • Workers eventually won shorter hours, better wages and conditions
long term effects
Long-Term Effects
  • Improved living and working conditions still present today
  • Governments use increased tax revenues for urban improvements
  • The rise of labor unions
the mills of manchester
The Mills of Manchester
  • Manchester has labor, water power, nearby port at Liverpool
  • Poor live and work unhealthy, even dangerous, environment
  • Business owners make profits by risking their own money on factories
  • Eventually, working class sees its standard of living rise some
children in manchester factories
Children in Manchester Factories
  • Children as young as 6 work in factories;many are injured
  • 1819 Factory Act restricts working age, hours
  • Factory pollution fouls air, poisons river
  • Nonetheless, Manchester produces goods and creates wealth