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The Coming of World War II. The role of American public opinion in the shaping of American foreign policy. I. U.S. Foreign Policy: 1920’s and 1930’s. Retreat from internationalism to traditional isolationism Rejection of League of Nations membership

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the coming of world war ii

The Coming of World War II

The role of American public opinion in the shaping of American foreign policy.

i u s foreign policy 1920 s and 1930 s
I. U.S. Foreign Policy: 1920’s and 1930’s
  • Retreat from internationalism to traditional isolationism
  • Rejection of League of Nations membership
  • Desire to be engaged economically with the world
  • Washington Conference on Naval Disarmament (1921)
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
ii remaining european debt to the united states
II. Remaining European Debt to the United States
  • Two types of debt owed to the U.S.
  • European argument for forgiveness of this debt
  • American defense of repayment
  • Debt finally renegotiated and cut by 50%
  • Debt remains $22 billion including interest payable over 62 years
iii early signs of war in the 1930 s
III. Early Signs of War in the 1930’s
  • Origins of the tension and war between Japan and China—the battle over Manchuria
  • European economic problems weakened the popularity of democratic governments in Europe
  • Roosevelt ignores these developments at first, but all that began to change in 1937
iv intensified american isolationism
IV. Intensified American Isolationism
  • The Nye Commission (1934-1937)
  • Historical arguments justifying isolationism
  • Congressional neutrality acts (1934-1937)
  • The Johnson Act (1934)
  • FDR’s “Good Neighbor Policy” in Latin America
iv intensified american isolationism cont
IV. Intensified American Isolationism (cont.)
  • Japanese attack on U.S. gunboat in China (1937)
  • Ludlow amendment proposed (1938)
  • FDR’s indecision
  • CDAAA organized (1940)
  • “America First” movement (1940)
  • FDR’s “Quarantine Speech” (1937)
v the 1930 s a volatile world
V. The 1930’s: A Volatile World
  • “Have-Not” nations
  • Japan
  • The Soviet Union
  • Growing Soviet aggression
  • Soviet recognition in 1933
  • Italy and Ethiopia
  • Spanish Civil War
vi the early aggression of adolf hitler
VI. The Early Aggression of Adolf Hitler
  • Violation of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Reoccupation of the Rhineland (1936)
  • The “Anschluss” (1938)
  • Crisis in Czechoslovakia (1938-1939)

-- “Sudetenland”

  • Non-Aggression Pact with the USSR
  • Invasion of Poland (September 1, 1939)
vii u s reaction to hitler s aggression
VII. U.S. Reaction to Hitler’s Aggression
  • Isolationism at its peak in the late 1930’s
  • Neutrality in action but not thought
  • “Cash and Carry” weapons
  • German “blitzkrieg”
  • Europe after the fall of France in June of 1940
  • US assumptions regarding the war in Europe
vii u s reaction to hitler s aggression cont
VII. U.S. Reaction to Hitler’s Aggression (cont.)
  • US military build-up and provisions for Britain
  • “Destroyers for bases” deal (Sept., 1940)
  • The Lend-Lease Act (March, 1941)
  • Lend-Lease Aid to the Soviets (June, 1941)
vii u s reaction to hitler s aggression cont11
VII. U.S. Reaction to Hitler’s Aggression (cont.)
  • American “neutrality patrols”
  • The Atlantic Charter (August, 1941)
  • The “Greer” incident (September, 1941)
  • Undeclared naval war with the Germans in the Atlantic ocean
viii japanese aggression in the far east
VIII. Japanese Aggression in the Far East
  • Continuing war between Japan and China
  • Japanese need for oil
  • US restrictions on oil exports to Japan
  • Japan began to look around southeast Asia for oil
viii japanese aggression in the far east cont
VIII. Japanese Aggression in the Far East (cont.)
  • Japan invades northern Indochina (Summer of 1940)
  • Tripartite Pact (Sept., 1940)
  • Invasion of southern Indochina (July, 1941)
  • The threat to US national security and the US response
  • Japanese strategy to deal with the US
ix the japanese attack on pearl harbor
IX. The Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • A “Surprise” Attack
  • The significance of the aircraft carrier
  • “Tora, Tora, Tora!” (December 7, 1941)
  • The “limited” goals of the Admiral Yamamoto
  • The problem created by the attack for the Japanese
  • Conspiracy theory
  • Congressional resolution for war
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