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PolicyTracker Conference. A military perspective on spectrum liberalisation Peter Bakker, CDR RNLN. Introduction. Peter Bakker Working as the national allied radio frequency agency (NARFA) for policy matters @ NLD MOD No background in telecommunication or transmission systems

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Policytracker conference

PolicyTracker Conference

A military perspective on spectrum liberalisation

Peter Bakker, CDR RNLN


Introduction
Introduction

  • Peter Bakker

  • Working as the national allied radio frequency agency (NARFA) for policy matters @ NLD MOD

  • No background in telecommunication or transmission systems

  • Presenting the NLD (occasionally personal) view, not necessarily shared by NATO partners

Introduction


Program
Program

  • Setting the scene

  • Spectrum liberalisation aspects

  • Preserving (national) security

Program


International arena
International arena

  • NLD is a NATO nation

  • NLD forces will operate in a coalition (EU, NATO, UN mission)

  • Since the 90’s mission area is defined as “anywhere in the world”

  • Mission expansion – CRO, PK, HA, DR

  • Cooperation with NGOs or IOs

  • National security is dependent on global stability

1. Setting the scene


European nato cooperation structures

ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (OSCE) (56)

EURO-ATLANTIC PARTNERSHIP COUNCIL (EAPC) (50)

Andorra

Holy See

PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE (PfP) (24)

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

Liechtenstein

Turkmenistan

Tajikistan1

ORGANISATION (NATO) (26)

Monaco

MAP (3)

Belarus1

United States

PARP (20)

Canada

Norway

San Marino

Kazakhstan1

Albania2

Iceland

Turkey

Kyrgyzstan1

Croatia2

Moldova1

FYROM*3

Serbia

EUROPEAN UNION (EU) (27)

Armenia1

Switzerland

Belgium

Greece

Luxembourg

Slovenia

Austria

Azerbaijan1

Uzbekistan1

Bulgaria

Germany

Netherlands

Spain

Cyprus

Finland

Intensified Dialogue(4)

Czech Rep

Hungary

Poland

Ireland

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Montenegro

Denmark

Italy

Portugal

Sweden

Estonia

Latvia

Romania

Georgia

Ukraine

Slovakia

France

Lithuania

Russia1

Malta

United Kingdom

Special Relationship

Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI) (4)

Contact Countries w/Tailored Co-op Pkgs

Mediterranean Dialogue (MD) (7)

Algeria

Israel

Mauritania

Tunisia

Bahrain

Qatar

Afghanistan

Japan

South Korea

Egypt

Jordan

Morocco

Kuwait

UAE

Australia

New Zealand

1 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Member (9)

EU Candidates (3)

2 Invited to join NATO

3 Invitation to join NATO pending resolution of one issue

* Turkey recognizes the Republic of Macedonia with its constitutional name

As of 28 Sep 08

European & NATO cooperation structures

1. Setting the scene


Communications interoperability
Communications Interoperability (56)

  • Three aspects; Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability

  • Flexibility through large tuning ranges

  • Procurement plans not synchronised

  • Equipment will be in the inventory for a long time

  • Legacy versus increasing commercial use of wireless applications

  • Concept of operation is dependent on access to radio spectrum

  • Future concept of operation even more

1. Setting the scene


Robustness of military radio services
Robustness of military radio services (56)

  • Confidentiality and availability requirements are incompatible with efficient use of radio spectrum

  • Radio services are used for voice, data, multi media and radio determination transmissions

  • Radio determination systems must work in adverse propagation conditions and must be able to locate small objects often travelling at high speeds

  • Radio services must work in urban and rural environments all over the world

  • In the military effectiveness of radio services is the highest priority, efficiency comes second

  • Military radio services must cover spectrum from 9 KHz to 300 GHz

1. Setting the scene


Mobility
Mobility (56)

  • Mobility of military communication systems versus commercial mobile users

  • Mission areas

Desert

Jungle

Ocean

Polar

Urban

1. Setting the scene


Radiospectrum occupancy part 1
Radiospectrum occupancy part 1 (56)

  • A typical radio spectrum graph made in an urban area. Notice the empty space in the band commonly allocated to military use in Europe

Empty space here

2 Spectrum liberalisation aspects


Radiospectrum occupancy part 2

200 – 400 MHz range (56)

Radiospectrum occupancy part 2

  • Another radio spectrum graph made somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. Notice the empty space in non-military bands

Guess where the non-military bands are

2. Spectrum liberalisation aspects


Spectrum occupancy conclusion
Spectrum occupancy conclusion (56)

  • Both sectors (non-military and military) are unhappy with current frequency allocations

  • Both sectors see benefit in spectrum liberalisation leading to a situation where there is radio service and technology neutrality

2. Spectrum liberalisation aspects


The road to radio spectrum liberalisation part 1
The road to radio spectrum liberalisation part 1 (56)

  • Aim for harmonisation of spectrum for non-military and military applications/ radio services (e.g. GSM),

  • Aim for optimal spectrum efficiency within harmonised bands for each sector,

  • Wherever possible and useful introduce service and technology neutrality within harmonised spectrum bands for each sector (e.g. WAPECS),

  • Develop regulatory and legal framework to support these actions,

  • Develop technology and implement the regulatory framework to support the final goal of spectrum liberalisation for all applications regardless of sector.

  • Tadaaaa - Cognitive Radio (CR)

2. Spectrum liberalisation aspects


Cognitive radio and spectrum access
Cognitive Radio and spectrum access (56)

Spectrum access

CR implementation

time

Upward trend for both sectors due to better spectrum occupancy

Downward trend for military

Upward trend for non-military

2. Spectrum liberalisation aspects


The road to radio spectrum liberalisation part 2
The road to radio spectrum liberalisation part 2 (56)

  • However,.. questions need to be answered, for example;

  • What role do EC, ITU-R have to play?

  • Licences and CR?

  • Management of infrastructure in a CR environment?

  • Wireless versus wired/ fiber services (e.g. how does public radio through the air (terrestrial or satellite), internet, cable or mobile phone compare to making optimal use of radio spectrum?)

  • Can all radio services actually be implemented in a technology and service neutral environment?

2. Spectrum liberalisation aspects


Preserving national security part 1
Preserving (national) security part 1 (56)

  • National security is dependent on global stability

  • Military will need access to radio spectrum to do their job effectively in any mission area

  • Military must exercise in a realistic scenario near home base before operational employment, however, under constraining peace time conditions

  • Home base environment or peace time conditions are not the same as in the mission area

  • There is a limit to using commercial of the shelf products or non-military radio services

3. Preserving (national) security


Preserving national security part 2
Preserving (national) security part 2 (56)

  • Military are aware of radio spectrum scarcity in the bands that are useful to non-military use

  • Military are investigating and implementing equipment & procedures that lead to more efficient use of radio spectrum allocated to their forces

  • Dialogue with non-military sector and regulators leaves room for improvement

  • It might take a considerable amount of time before spectrum liberalisation will or can be implemented by both military and non-military sector

3. Preserving (national) security


Preserving national security bottom line
Preserving (national) security bottom line (56)

  • If there were only such things as “global availability of radio networks”, “bandwidth on demand”, “hackproof/ certified quality of service” in combination with sound implementations of Cognitive Radio for all kinds of radio services, the military would not need spectrum allocations on an exclusive basis

  • But then again what other sector or radio service would need such an allocation?

3. Preserving (national) security


Thank you
Thank you (56)

  • For listening to a SMA

  • Spectrum

  • Management

  • Amateur


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