Greek Architecture and Medea. Ancient Greek Architecture. 古希臘建築. 古希臘建築的結構屬樑柱體系. 早期主要建築都用石料。限於材料性能 , 石梁跨度一般是 4 ～ 5 米 , 最大不過 7 ～ 8 米。石柱以鼓狀砌塊壘疊而成 , 砌塊之間有榫卯或金屬銷子連接。牆體也用石砌塊壘成 , 砌塊平整精細 , 砌縫嚴密 , 不用膠結材料。雖然古希臘建築形式變化較少 , 內部空間封閉簡單 , 但後世許多流派的建築師 , 都從古希臘建築中得到借鑒。. 古風時期.
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The Main Elements of the Doric Order (Temple of the Dioscouri at Agrigento)
The fluted columns of the temple of Apollo Epicurus at Bassae bear a striking resemblance to the stem of angelica (angelica sylvestris).圓當歸
愛奧尼亞式﹝ionic order﹞的柱頭 利用黃金分割比例連續製作愈來愈大的正方形，以弧形連接每一個正方形的對角，可以形成一個螺旋狀的曲線，將這個曲線運用在希臘建築柱頭的設計，就形成愛奧尼亞式﹝ionic order﹞的柱頭。
the ratio of golden mean 古希臘人把「黃金分割比例」認為是最完美的比例，而靈活運用在各種造型中。它的基本方法是，把一條線分割成大小兩段，小線段和大線段的長度比，等於大線段和全部線段的長度比。以下圖為例： |---------------|-----------------------| X1－X
古典的理想 接著說到 Classical Ideal古典的理想。孕育希臘古典主義的社會及歷史背景是一個充滿衝突和爭戰的時代。如果我們把歷史背景與文化創造的作品比較起來，會發現它們是矛盾的─希臘古典主義的理想非常好，但是希臘人在現實上都做不到，因此將理想表現再文學和藝術上。實際上混亂的時代的人就容易認同這種合諧以及規律的理想。 古典理想(Classical Ideal)的特色就是balance和order。
Martin, Thomas R. Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times. New Haven: Yale UP, 1996.
Public revenues Athens received substantial public revenues form harbor fees, sales taxes, and the tribute of the allies. Buildings paid for by public funds from these sources constituted the most conspicuous architecture in the city of the Classical period of the fifth and fourth centuries.
Agora and council The scale of these public buildings was usually no greater than the size required to fulfill their function, such as the complex of buildings on the agora’s western edge in which the council of five hundred held its meetings and the public archives were kept.
The Acropolis 447 BCE Since the assembly convened in the open air on a hillside above the agora, it required no building at all except for a speaker’s platform. In 447 B.C., however, at Pericles’ instigation, a great project began atop the Acropolis, the mesa-like promontory at the center of the city, which towered over the agora.
Parthenon Most conspicuous of all were a mammoth gate building with columns straddling the broad entrance to the acropolis at its western end and a new Athena temple, the Parthenon, to house a towering image of the goddess. Video: NOVA | Optical Tricks of the Parthenon | PBS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzhA3yiEofI&feature=related
Expensive construction program These buildings alone cost easily more than the equivalent of a billion dollars in modern terms, a phenomenal sum for an ancient Greek city-state. The program was so expensive that the political enemies of Pericles railed at him for squandering public funds. The finances for the program apparently came in part form the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League.
Parthenon Parthenon, the name of the new temple built for Athena on the Acropolis, meant “the house of the virgin goddess.” As the patron goddess of Athens, Athena had long had another sanctuary on the acropolis honoring her in her role as Athena Polias (“guardian of the city”).
Sculptural decoration The Parthenon was extraordinary in its great size and expense, but it was truly remarkable in the innovation of its refined architecture and elaborate sculptural decoration.
Optical illusion Since perfectly rectilinear architecture appears curved to the human eye, subtle curves and inclines were built into the Parthenon to produce an optical illusion of completely straight lines: the columns were given a slight bulge in their middles, the corner columns were installed at a light incline and closer together, and the platform was made slightly convex.
Greek Tragedy and Comedy Greek Tragedy • Aeschylus • Sophocles • Euripides Greek Comedy • Aristophanes
sources This is the title of a long poem, very popular in classical days, by the third-century poet Apollonius of Rhodes. He tells the whole story of the Quest except the part about Jason and Pelias which I have taken from Pindar. It is the subject of one of his most famous odes, written in the first half of the fifth century. Apollonius ends his poem with the return of the heroes to Greece. I have added the account of what Jason and Medea did there, taking it from the fifth-century tragic poet Euripides, who made it the subject of one of his best plays.
Journey by water The first hero in Europe who undertook a great journey was the leader of the Quest of the Golden Fleece. He was supposed to have lived a generation earlier than the most famous Greek traveler, the hero of the Odyssey. It was of course a journey by water. Ships did not sail by night, and any place where sailors put in might harbor a monster or a magician who could work more deadly harm than storm and shipwreck. High courage was necessary to travel, especially outside of Greece.
the ship Argo No story proved this fact better than the account of what the heroes suffered who sailed in the ship Argo to find the Golden Fleece. It may be doubted, indeed, if there ever was a voyage on which sailors had to face so many and such varied dangers. However, they were all heroes of renown, some of them the greatest in Greece, and they were quite equal to their adventures.
Penteconter, 50-oared ship • as pentecontor or pentekontor (Greek: πεντηκόντορος, fifty-oared) was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period.
Jason and Argonauts the Golden Fleece is the fleece of the gold-haired winged ram. It figures in the tale of Jason and his band of Argonauts, who set out on a quest for the fleece in order to place Jason rightfully on the throne of Iolcus in Thessaly.
King Phineus & the Harpies, Athenian red-figure hydria C5th B.C., The J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu