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Chapter 4: Network Layer

Chapter 4: Network Layer

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Chapter 4: Network Layer

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  1. Chapter 4: Network Layer Chapter goals: • understand principles behind network layer services: • network layer service models • forwarding versus routing • how a router works • routing (path selection) • broadcast, multicast • instantiation, implementation in the Internet Network Layer

  2. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer

  3. transport segment from sending to receiving host on sending side encapsulates segments into datagrams on rcving side, delivers segments to transport layer network layer protocols in every host, router router examines header fields in all IP datagrams passing through it network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical Network layer Network Layer

  4. Two Key Network-Layer Functions • forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output • routing: determine route taken by packets from source to dest. • routing algorithms analogy: • routing: process of planning trip from source to dest • forwarding: process of getting through single interchange Network Layer

  5. routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link 0100 0101 0111 1001 3 2 2 1 value in arriving packet’s header 1 0111 2 3 Interplay between routing and forwarding Network Layer

  6. Connection setup • 3rd important function in some network architectures: • ATM, frame relay, X.25 • before datagrams flow, two end hosts and intervening routers establish virtual connection • routers get involved • network vs transport layer connection service: • network: between two hosts (may also involve intervening routers in case of VCs) • transport: between two processes Network Layer

  7. example services for individual datagrams: guaranteed delivery guaranteed delivery with less than 40 msec delay example services for a flow of datagrams: in-order datagram delivery guaranteed minimum bandwidth to flow restrictions on changes in inter-packet spacing Network service model Q: What service model for “channel” transporting datagrams from sender to receiver? Network Layer

  8. Network layer service models: Guarantees ? Network Architecture Internet ATM ATM ATM ATM Service Model best effort CBR VBR ABR UBR Congestion feedback no (inferred via loss) no congestion no congestion yes no Bandwidth none constant rate guaranteed rate guaranteed minimum none Loss no yes yes no no Order no yes yes yes yes Timing no yes yes no no Network Layer

  9. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer

  10. Network layer connection and connection-less service • datagram network provides network-layer connectionless service • VC network provides network-layer connection service • analogous to the transport-layer services, but: • service: host-to-host • no choice: network provides one or the other • implementation: in network core Network Layer

  11. call setup, teardown for each call before data can flow each packet carries VC identifier (not destination host address) every router on source-dest path maintains “state” for each passing connection link, router resources (bandwidth, buffers) may be allocated to VC (dedicated resources = predictable service) “source-to-dest path behaves much like telephone circuit” performance-wise network actions along source-to-dest path Virtual circuits Network Layer

  12. VC implementation a VC consists of: • path from source to destination • VC numbers, one number for each link along path • entries in forwarding tables in routers along path • packet belonging to VC carries VC number (rather than dest address) • VC number can be changed on each link. • New VC number comes from forwarding table Network Layer

  13. VC number 22 32 12 3 1 2 interface number Incoming interface Incoming VC # Outgoing interface Outgoing VC # 1 12 3 22 2 63 1 18 3 7 2 17 1 97 3 87 … … … … VC Forwarding table Forwarding table in northwest router: Routers maintain connection state information! Network Layer

  14. used to setup, maintain teardown VC used in ATM, frame-relay, X.25 not used in today’s Internet application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical Virtual circuits: signaling protocols 6. Receive data 5. Data flow begins 4. Call connected 3. Accept call 1. Initiate call 2. incoming call Network Layer

  15. no call setup at network layer routers: no state about end-to-end connections no network-level concept of “connection” packets forwarded using destination host address packets between same source-dest pair may take different paths (Recall: open-loop congestion control mechanisms not feasible) application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical Datagram networks 1. Send data 2. Receive data Network Layer

  16. 4 billion IP addresses, so rather than list individual destination address list range of addresses (aggregate table entries) Datagram Forwarding table routing algorithm local forwarding table dest address output link address-range 1 address-range 2 address-range 3 address-range 4 3 2 2 1 IP destination address in arriving packet’s header 1 2 3 Network Layer

  17. Datagram Forwarding table Destination Address Range 11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000 through 11001000 00010111 00010111 11111111 11001000 00010111 00011000 00000000 through 11001000 00010111 00011000 11111111 11001000 00010111 00011001 00000000 through 11001000 00010111 00011111 11111111 otherwise Link Interface 0 1 2 3 Q: but what happens if ranges don’t divide up so nicely? Network Layer

  18. Longest prefix matching Longest prefix matching when looking for forwarding table entry for given destination address, use longest address prefix that matches destination address. Link interface 0 1 2 3 Destination Address Range 11001000 00010111 00010*** ********* 11001000 00010111 00011000 ********* 11001000 00010111 00011*** ********* otherwise Examples: DA: 11001000 00010111 00010110 10100001 Which interface? Which interface? DA: 11001000 00010111 00011000 10101010 Network Layer

  19. Internet (datagram) data exchange among computers “elastic” service, no strict timing req. “smart” end systems (computers) can adapt, perform control, error recovery simple inside network, complexity at “edge” many link types different characteristics uniform service difficult ATM (VC) evolved from telephony human conversation: strict timing, reliability requirements need for guaranteed service “dumb” end systems telephones complexity inside network Datagram or VC network: why? Network Layer

  20. Comparison of Virtual-Circuit and Datagram Networks

  21. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router? 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer

  22. switching fabric router input ports router output ports routing processor Router Architecture Overview two key router functions: • run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) • forwarding datagrams from incoming to outgoing link Network Layer

  23. Input Port Functions lookup, forwarding queueing Decentralized switching: • given datagram dest., lookup output port using forwarding table in input port memory • goal: complete input port processing at ‘line speed’ • queuing: if datagrams arrive faster than forwarding rate into switch fabric link layer protocol (receive) switch fabric line termination Physical layer: bit-level reception Data link layer: e.g., Ethernet see chapter 5 Network Layer

  24. Switching fabrics • transfer packet from input buffer to appropriate output buffer • switching rate: rate at which packets can be transferred from inputs to outputs • often measured as multiple of input/output line rate • N inputs: switching rate @ N times line rate desirable • three types of switching fabrics memory bus memory crossbar Network Layer

  25. output port (e.g., Ethernet) input port (e.g., Ethernet) memory system bus Switching Via Memory First generation routers: • traditional computers with switching under direct control of CPU • packet copied to system’s memory • speed limited by memory bandwidth (2 bus crossings per datagram) Network Layer

  26. Switching Via a Bus • datagram from input port memory to output port memory via a shared bus • bus contention: switching speed limited by bus bandwidth • 32 Gbps bus, Cisco 5600: sufficient speed for access and enterprise routers bus Network Layer

  27. crossbar Switching Via An Interconnection Network • overcome bus bandwidth limitations • Banyan networks, crossbar, other interconnection nets initially developed to connect processors in multiprocessor • advanced design: fragmenting datagram into fixed length cells, switch cells through the fabric. • Cisco 12000: switches 60 Gbps through the interconnection network Network Layer

  28. datagram buffer queueing Output Ports • buffering required when datagrams arrive from fabric faster than the transmission rate • scheduling discipline chooses among queued datagrams for transmission switch fabric line termination link layer protocol (send) Network Layer

  29. switch fabric switch fabric one packet time later at t, packets more from input to output Output port queueing • buffering when arrival rate via switch exceeds output line speed • queueing (delay) and loss due to output port buffer overflow! Network Layer

  30. . RTT C N How much buffering? • RFC 3439 rule of thumb: average buffering equal to “typical” RTT (say 250 msec) times link capacity C • e.g., C = 10 Gpbs link: 2.5 Gbit buffer • recent recommendation: with N flows, buffering equal to Network Layer

  31. Buffer size and # flows Network Layer

  32. Input Port Queuing • fabric slower than input ports combined -> queueing may occur at input queues • queueing delay and loss due to input buffer overflow! • Head-of-the-Line (HOL) blocking: queued datagram at front of queue prevents others in queue from moving forward. Solution—Virtual Output Queues switch fabric switch fabric one packet time later: green packet experiences HOL blocking output port contention: only one red datagram can be transferred.lower red packet is blocked Network Layer

  33. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer

  34. Host, router network layer functions: • ICMP protocol • error reporting • router “signaling” • IP protocol • addressing conventions • datagram format • packet handling conventions • Routing protocols • path selection • RIP, OSPF, BGP forwarding table The Internet Network layer Transport layer: TCP, UDP Network layer Link layer physical layer Network Layer

  35. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer

  36. IP protocol version number 32 bits total datagram length (bytes) header length (bytes) type of service head. len ver length for fragmentation/ reassembly fragment offset “type” of data flgs 16-bit identifier max number remaining hops (decremented at each router) upper layer time to live header checksum 32 bit source IP address 32 bit destination IP address upper layer protocol to deliver payload to E.g. timestamp, record route taken, specify list of routers to visit. Options (if any) data (variable length, typically a TCP or UDP segment) IP datagram format how much overhead with TCP? • 20 bytes of TCP • 20 bytes of IP • = 40 bytes + app layer overhead Network Layer

  37. network links have MTU (max.transfer size) - largest possible link-level frame. different link types, different MTUs large IP datagram divided (“fragmented”) within net one datagram becomes several datagrams “reassembled” only at final destination IP header bits used to identify, order related fragments IP Fragmentation & Reassembly fragmentation: in: one large datagram out: 3 smaller datagrams reassembly Network Layer

  38. length =1500 length =1040 length =1500 length =4000 ID =x ID =x ID =x ID =x fragflag =0 fragflag =0 fragflag =1 fragflag =1 offset =0 offset =185 offset =0 offset =370 One large datagram becomes several smaller datagrams IP Fragmentation and Reassembly Example • 4000 byte datagram • MTU = 1500 bytes 1480 bytes in data field offset = 1480/8 Network Layer

  39. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer

  40. IPv6 • Initial motivation:32-bit address space soon to be completely allocated. • Additional motivation: • header format helps speed processing/forwarding • header changes to facilitate QoS IPv6 datagram format: • fixed-length 40 byte header • no fragmentation allowed Network Layer

  41. IPv6 Header (Cont) Priority: identify priority among datagrams in flow Flow Label: identify datagrams in same “flow.” (concept of“flow” not well defined). Next header: identify upper layer protocol for data Data: extension headers + upper layer payload pri ver flow label hop limit payload len next hdr source address (128 bits) destination address (128 bits) data 32 bits Network Layer

  42. Extension Header Network Layer

  43. Other Changes from IPv4 • Checksum:removed entirely to reduce processing time at each hop • Options: allowed, but outside of header (in the “extension headers” data portion), pointed to by “Next Header” field. Upper layer protocol info is put into “Next Header” field in the last extension header • ICMPv6: new version of ICMP • additional message types, e.g. “Packet Too Big” • multicast group management functions Network Layer

  44. Transition From IPv4 To IPv6 • Not all routers can be upgraded simultaneous • no “flag days” • How will the network operate with mixed IPv4 and IPv6 routers? • Tunneling: IPv6 carried as payload in IPv4 datagram among IPv4 routers Network Layer

  45. F A B E F E B A tunnel Logical view: IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 Physical view: IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv4 IPv4 Tunneling Network Layer

  46. Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data A B E F F A B E C D Src:B Dest: E Src:B Dest: E Tunneling tunnel Logical view: IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 Physical view: IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv4 IPv4 A-to-B: IPv6 E-to-F: IPv6 B-to-C: IPv6 inside IPv4 B-to-C: IPv6 inside IPv4 Network Layer

  47. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer

  48. used by hosts & routers to communicate network-level information error reporting: unreachable host, network, port, protocol echo request/reply (used by ping) network-layer “above” IP: ICMP msgs carried in IP datagrams ICMP message: type, code plus the header and first 8 bytes of IP datagram causing error ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol TypeCodedescription 0 0 echo reply (ping) 3 0 dest. network unreachable 3 1 dest host unreachable 3 2 dest protocol unreachable 3 3 dest port unreachable 3 6 dest network unknown 3 7 dest host unknown 4 0 source quench (congestion control - not used) 8 0 echo request (ping) 9 0 route advertisement 10 0 router discovery 11 0 TTL expired 12 0 bad IP header Network Layer

  49. Source sends series of UDP segments to dest first has TTL =1 second has TTL=2, etc. unlikely port number When nth datagram arrives to nth router: router discards datagram and sends to source an ICMP message (type 11, code 0) ICMP message includes name of router & IP address when ICMP message arrives, source calculates RTT traceroute does this 3 times Stopping criterion UDP segment eventually arrives at destination host destination returns ICMP “port unreachable” packet (type 3, code 3) when source gets this ICMP, stops. Traceroute and ICMP Network Layer

  50. 4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing Chapter 4: Network Layer Network Layer