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Landscape Principles

Landscape Principles

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Landscape Principles

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  1. Landscape Principles Concepts & Applications By Andy TenHuisen June 2002 Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office

  2. Objectives • To identify the principles of art as it pertains to landscape design • To distinguish between good and poor landscape designs • To explain the importance of implementing design principles • To describe methods of obtaining design principles

  3. You know when something looks good, but can you explain to someone else why you like it?

  4. Which do you like? • Why do you like that one? • What makes it different from the other? • Does this relate anything at all to a haircut?

  5. Why don’t you like this house? • How do you tell another person why you dislike this house? • Can you put into words what needs to be done to improve this house’s curb appeal?

  6. Let’s take a look and find out what words you can use to better describe what you like

  7. Balance • Means “equilibrium” • Visual weight of the landscape is equal • Unbalanced objects cause the viewer to be uneasy and confused • Two types of balance can be used in the landscape

  8. Symmetrical Balance • Mirror image • Used more for formal architecture • Visual weight is balanced

  9. Which house has symmetrical balance?

  10. Asymmetrical Balance • Visual weight is balanced but not mirror images • Used more in informal architecture

  11. Home landscapes lacking balance are unappealing

  12. Simplicity • Should be soothing to the eye; not busy • No competing objects • Minimal plant variety • No scalloped bed lines; gentle curves • Repetition • Mass Plantings

  13. Repetition • Repeating shapes helps maintain simplicity

  14. Mass Plantings • Large beds of one plant variety achieve simplicity

  15. Simple Design • Using minimal plant variety • Gentle curving bed lines • Repetition

  16. What characteristics of simplicity are achieved here? • Curved bed lines • Minimal plant variety • No competing objects • Not busy

  17. Focalization • Visual importance • One item appears to dominate • Don’t have competing focal points • Draws attention

  18. Front Door • The front door should be the focal point of the landscape

  19. Using brass kick plate Use lights and lighting fixtures Sidewalks lead eye to door Using porticos Stained glass Vertical elements Small flower beds Accenting the Front Door

  20. Front Doors

  21. Where’s the front door?

  22. Rhythm & Line • What is rhythm? • How to achieve rhythm? • What lines are we concerned with? • Sequencing?

  23. Rhythm • Landscapes have rhythm just as music has rhythm • Music has a beat (count) • Music has repetition of notes in the same scale • Landscapes have rhythm by a repetitious count of textures/form/color

  24. Rhythm • Repeating plant form/color/texture throughout the entire landscape

  25. Rhythm • Tying areas together • Continuity • Gradual changes

  26. Line • What the eye follows • Everything has a line • Tree outlines • Bed lines • Patios & Decks • Buildings • Gradual changes of line are most appealing

  27. Lines

  28. Bed lines

  29. Vertical Lines • Vertical lines draw attention • Create a sense of tension and nervousness • Tend to exaggerate

  30. Horizontal Lines • Horizontal lines create a sense of warmth and tranquility • Do not draw attention

  31. Sequencing • Positioning objects according to size • Small – medium – large • Provide a smoother line for the eye to follow • Provide views of all plants • Help create horizontal lines

  32. Sequencing

  33. Lacking Rhythm & Line

  34. Large objects dwarf other objects Large objects tend to be overpowering and cause uneasiness Large objects used with large structures create proportion Small objects create a feeling of warmth and serenity Small objects enhance or exaggerate other objects Dwarfed plants should be used with smaller landscapes Scale & Proportion

  35. Proportionately Correct

  36. Incorrect Scale

  37. Large plants in front of house help dwarf the house

  38. Review of Principles • Balance • Simplicity • Focalization • Rhythm & Line • Scale & Proportion

  39. Symmetrical Balance

  40. Asymmetrical Balance

  41. Unbalanced

  42. Simplicity • Gentle curves and lines • Repetition of plants • Mass plantings

  43. Simplicity • One focal point • Same texture • Horizontal lines

  44. No Simplicity

  45. Focalization • One focal point • No competing elements • Vertical lines help draw attention • Changes in form

  46. Rhythm & Line • Bed lines tie areas together • Horizontal lines create a feeling of warmth • Repetition provides continuity • Simplistic designs create rhythm

  47. Scale & Proportion • Using plants in size relationship to complement rather than offend • Larger plants are overpowering and create uneasiness • Smaller plants generate warmth

  48. Let’s take a look at some more desirable landscapes