University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning Landscape Architecture (EAPS4303) Lecturer 6/2 Landscape Design Principles: Attributes, Balance, Connection, Interest, Flow & Mass Planting Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 26.10.2008
Design Principles • Objectives of the Lecturer: 1. Become familiar with the attributes of form, color, and texture and its use 2. Understand approaches to balance in the landscape 3. Establish connection or unity in the design 4. know various means of creating visual interest 5. create a sense of flow or transition in the landscape 6. Understand the application of mass planting
Why Design Principles • Concept plan deals with creating a useful or functional component of the landscape design • Design principles focus on aesthetic or visual appeal aspects • Plus creating a sense of unity & order in the design concept • The goal should be to create a landscape that appears as ‘big picture’ where every component of the landscape belongs to the overall design..
Design AttributesA. Form • Form: is the outline of an object or plant, or the total mass of plants when grouped together. • Form is manipulated when shrubs are tightly sheared having geometric forms (formal gardens)
Design Attributes A • Category of Form ranging from upright, columnar to broad and spreading • A: loud form demands attention & can be disruptive • B: vine growing up a white wall creating an interesting pattern of form • C: Weeping form creating the effect of water fall into a dry creek • D: The planting beds creates a curving form of turf on the ground plane. B C D
Design Attributes • Shearing form into a specific shape of spirals or animals change a plant form vanishing its natural one. • Be aware of natural plant forms, so as not to have too much variety in the design. • The technique of pruning plants to grow flat against a wall or fence is called Espalier
Design AttributesB. Color • Warm colors (red, orange & yellow) creates excitement while cool colors (blue, green & purple) have a calming effect. • Introduced by Foliage (undergrowth plants), fruit & flower • Foliage (commonly green): displays light green, silver green, blue green & dark green creating visual interest & contrast • Other Foliage of shades (red, purple & Yellow) and the burgundy Japanese Maple develop a nice change among green foliage Foliage: Iris Japonica Foliage: Iris Japonica Burgundy Japanese Maple
Design AttributesB. Color • Variegation is the mottling or striping of Foliage offering a unique display and can be used to allow for accent points among green Foliage. • Fall color brilliant display of fall color like the red of these Firepower Nandina • Flowers very common means of introducing color into the landscape (like roses, camellias & azaleas) Firepower Nandina
Design AttributesB. Color • Length of bloom aware of how long a plant will bloom all season or perennials that bloom from a short week to several weeks • Sequence (timing) spring flowering summer flowering
Design AttributesB. Color • Fruit A way to introduce color into the landscape. A Hollies are popular shrubs offering little fruit display & having bright red cluster of fruit used in the Christmas holiday B is used as a food source to attract birds (sugar maple) C Pyracantha is valued for large clusters of bright red fruit A B C
Design AttributesB. Color Paper Birch • Branching introduces color in the winter Colorful trunks add color, especially exfoliating bark varieties. Paper birch are prized for white trunks while other trees exfoliate a cinnamon brown color. River Birch
Design AttributesC. Texture • A texture referred to the foliage or branching and is classified as fine, medium or coarse. • Foliage: the size of the leaves, large ones are coarse (Oak leaf hydrangea) & small ones are fine in texture Oak leaf hydrangea Fatsia Yaupon holly
Design AttributesC. Texture • Branching Large blocky branching appears coarse in texture in comparison with thin, wispy branching Coarse texture is more dominant than fine texture. Herbaceous plants have a welcoming, unique texture in the patio setting. Coarse tends to make a space feel smaller & can be used to make wide open spaces feel more enclosed Herbaceous has a warm reddish color and contrasts nicely with the fine textured vine & bamboo behind it.. Fine texture is used in formal designs, i.e. tightly sheared hedges, serving an unifying effect. Fine texture has a distant quality creating a large, more open feeling (to open up or expand small spaces such as a court yard).
2 Balance • It is a sense of equality bringing in the design order. • 2 general forms of balance that are utilized in landscape design: Symmetrical & Asymmetrical balances • Symmetrical balance is a mirror image & is rather structured in how it is attained because of the exact repetition. • As such, it has a formal nature (formulaic Balance) used in formal gardens (botanical garden) where the hedges are tightly sheared.
2 Balance • Asymmetrical balance is unstructured much relying on feeling rather than the calculated placement of materials around one axis. • It is more of an informal balance appealing to a loose natural sense of balance.
3 Connection Repeating the rectangles connects the 4 objects that have various outlines. • Creating connection/unity among the entire design: without it the design appears chaotic and lacking a sense of unity. • Approaches used to score connection are by utilizing repetition & physically linking space. • Repetition: by using hardscapes or plants throughout a design. Visual recall of seeing the same plants or similar plant quality helps create connection. • Pay attention to the quality that you are using and repeat them to connect a space • Find out the unique qualities of too many different plants & hardscapes while not losing the big picture • Too many differences emphasized in the design are disruptive… Repeating the outline for different objects helps unit them. The left to right connection comes from repeated plant material & only one different (taller) shrub for variety..
3 Connection A • Repeating in the plan: A sufficient repetition of symbols B Too much variety breaks down connection C Too much repetition in the design is indeed boring B C
3 Connection • Plant repetition is by having the same plant throughout the design towards visual recall. • Plant repetition occurs by using foundation plants that have a nice, simple form but little outstanding qualities. • Foundation plants are valuable in the landscape, as they balance the attention demanded • They cover the foundation of the structure • They can be used in several different areas of the design providing a good visual recall by being seen in several places. Plants are sufficiently repeated in the plan to unify a space Plants are sufficiently repeated in the plan to unify a space Foundation plants
3 Connection Connect the front & back yards • Material repetition The same principles of repetition apply to hardscapes using the same pavers or flagstones. • Characteristic Repetition Texture Color Form Similar leaf shapes (Texture) Similar plant forms
3 Connection • Linking Space is physically linking plants with common material or continuing ground lines • Common material: Random plants can be connected using mulching planting bed, fence or wall/retaining wall
3 Connection • Linking space usingground lines Another tool of linking a space is by having continuing lines from bed, house, or other structures.
4 Visual Interest • The design has to have a visual interest as a means of curiosity, such as providing a curb appeal. • Interest in the design can be stirred by elements of accent • Accent is achieved with a focalized accent or interesting effects of, as for instance, contrasting textures • Focalized accents are objects or plants that directly attract attention, i.e. sculpture, water feature or specimen plant (a plant with unique characteristic
4 Visual Interest • Specimen: plants with some unique characteristics as a focal accent. • Characteristics of such plants are: 1. Form: unusual forms (weeping or contorted) 2. Texture: fine or coarse 3. Bark: reveals interesting colors & texture 4. Flowering: unique shapes or vivid color 5. Foliage: interesting color or unique variegation Form Coarse texture of the foliage
4 Visual InterestSpecimen Mottled brown & gray trunk can be appealing in winter Unique shape and/or color of the flower attracts attention Foliage: lacy burgundy of a weeping tree has a unique quality
Visual Interest • Contrast (two opposing qualities)& Curiosity • Contrast can be created by: 1. Texture 2. Form 3. Color Contrasting texture of vine with coarse texture of groundcover Contrasting vertical, sharp form with broadleaves Hiding, screening, portions of the landscape or accenting narrow walks can heighten curiosity Contrasting bright color foliage with surrounding green shrubs
4 Visual Interest A • Curiosity of sound A The sound of trickling water draws interest into the area B The fountain creates an echoing sound of water splashing C This large water feature is a great edition to the back yard. B C
4 Visual Interest • Narrow Walks & Corners Curiosity can be stirred by placing a focalized accent at the end of the path & around the corner, i.e. water feature or sculpture
5 Flow A E • Flow is the quality that carries eye smoothly through the landscape using line as a tool. Lines are where 2 materials meet along the outline of a form and are used to develop the character of landscape in 3 ways: • Curving (sweeping not overzealous curves) (B, C & A) • Straight (formal, structured flow) (D) • Arc & tangent (combination of straight lines & curving arcs) (E) D B C
5 Flow A A • Flowing Form It can be present in the form, such as the sweeping arc of the fence (A). • Transition smoothly between plants (B) and it could be up from the ground plane for gradual flow B
6 Mass Planting A Mass spacing strategies • Trees, shrubs and ground cover are often planted in groups referred to as mass planting General principles: • Several small shrubs can form one unique mass that can balance another large plant • The small size of many shrubs & ground cover would have minimal impact if planted alone • With improved connection, mass planting can improve the flow of the design. Evenly spaced & lack mass appeal Better connection with the bed
6 Mass Planting • Mass Spacing strategies B Odd Numbers: Groups of 2 tend to visually divide in half Groups of 3 appear grounded and better balanced.
6 Mass Planting • C Staggered Placement • Lay out plants in a staggered placement for interest & balance (1) • An even number of plants can be improved with a staggered placement (2) • Not considering planting in a straight line (3) Lacks proper spacing & numbers Good spacing & numbers 3 1 2
Key words • Accent: striking effect of quality that draws attention