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The Solar System. Our Solar Centre – the Sun. On the Sun, there are solar tornados which are tall funnel of twisting plasma with a temperature of several million degrees Celsius.

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Our solar centre the sun
Our Solar Centre – the Sun

  • On the Sun, there are solar tornados which are tall funnel of twisting plasma with a temperature of several million degrees Celsius.

  • Earth is the only planet in the solar system whose orbit is just the right distance away that a habitable environment for life is created.

The nature of the sun
The Nature of the Sun

  • Medium Size

  • It is composed mainly of hydrogen (73% by mass) and helium (25%)

  • 2% - carbon, oxygen, and iron.

  • Has shined for 5 billon years and is expected to continue shining for about another 5 billion years.

  • Emits radiations of almost all forms found in the electromagnetic spectrum.

    • Most obvious ones are visible light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation

The nature of the sun1
The Nature of the Sun

  • How should we measure the mass of the Sun?

    • By observing the speed of the solar system’s planets and other celestial objects orbit around it.

  • Nuclear reactions are taking place in the Sun

    • converting hydrogen into helium and release tremendous amounts of energy

    • the nuclear reaction is as powerful as the atomic weapon, the hydrogen bomb.

The sun s layer
The Sun’s Layer

The sun s layer1
THE Sun’s Layer

  • The Sun has 6 main layers (from the most inner layer): core, radiactive zone, convective zone, photoshpere, chromosphere, and corona.

Layer 1 core
Layer 1 - Core

  • High pressure and temperature (at least 15 million degrees Celcius)

  • Nuclear fusion takes place.

  • Nuclear fusion - a process in which light atoms fuse (combine) and become heavier ones. During fusion, a small amount of matter is turned into a huge amount of pure energy.

  • Fusion reaction creates helium.

  • Swelling outward :the large amount of energy is produced during fusion and cause the surface of the Sun to swell outward

  • Collapse inward : the Sun’s gravity pull the Sun’s mass inward.

Layer 2
Layer 2

  • Radiative Zone:

    • Plasma is very dense

    • Thickest layer (3/4 of the way up to the surface of the Sun.)

    • Light and other forms of radiation are continuously absorbed and re-emitted in all directions.

    • Light takes 100, 000 years to pass through the layer and reach our eye -> the radiation we receive today was generated in the Sun’s core more than 100, 000 year ago.

Layer 3 convective zone
Layer 3 – convective zone

  • Huge bubbles of hot plasma ooze up towards the surface and carrying energy.

  • Convection – constant circulation of plasma between hotter and cooler region.

Layer 4 photosphere
Layer 4 - photosphere

  • The boundary between the inside and the outside of the Sun.

  • This is the part of the Sun we see from Earth.

  • Has the lowest temperature (around 5, 500 ˚ C)

  • The Sun’s yellow colour originates in this layer.

Layer 5 chromosphere
Layer 5 - chromosphere

  • Chromos mean coloured.

  • Has red cast – only can be seen during a total solar eclipse.

Layer 6 corona
Layer 6 - corona

  • Outermost layer of the Sun

  • Extends beyond the chromosphere for millions of kilometres.

  • Most visible during a solar eclipse.

Surface features of the sun
Surface features of the Sun

  • The Sun’s magnetic field is generated by movement of the plasma deep in the Sun’s interior.

  • The 4 main features on the surface of the sun are sunspots, prominences, flares, and coronal mass ejections.

Feature 1 sun spot
Feature 1 – Sun Spot

  • A region on the Sun’s surface that is cooler than the surrounding areas.

  • Darker than the surrounding areas.

  • Magnetic field is extremely strong that the convection is slowing down.

  • The spot never stays at the same place.

  • The number of them reaches a maximum every 11 years, increasing when the magnetic field strength of the Sun also reaches a maximum level.

Feature 2 prominence
Feature 2 - Prominence

  • A large, often curved, bright stream of particles extending outward from the photosphere into the corona.

  • Often forms a complete loop.

  • There are electrically charged plasma in the prominence

    • Can be shaped by the magnetic field.

    • Many last for many hours.

Feature 3 solar flares
Feature 3 – Solar Flares

  • A massive explosion at the surface of the Sun.

  • It usually originates where the magnetic field breaks out of the Sun’s surface and interacts with the chromosphere and corona.

  • The sudden release of magnetic energy flings hot plasma out into space.

Feature 4 coronal mass ejection
Feature 4 – coronal mass ejection

  • Extremely powerful kind of flare

  • Thrown out through the corona and into space at a speed of more than 1000 km/s.

  • If it reaches Earth, the Earth’s magnetic field divert the plasma away from the planet’s surface and this causes aurora.

  • It can damage orbiting satellites and electrical transmission lines on the ground.

The sun s effects on earth
The Sun’s Effects on Earth

  • Warms Earth

  • Support every form of life on the planet.

  • Solar wind

  • Aurora borealis/

Solar wind
Solar Wind

  • The heat at the surface of the Sun produces a thin but steady stream of subatomic particles; the constant flow of particles is called Solar wind.

  • Blow away some gas and dust-> the ones that stayed formed solar system.

Aurora borealis
Aurora Borealis

  • Green, yellow, and red light in the skies near Earth’s Northern (aurora borealis) and Southern regions (aurora australis).

  • Occurs when the charged particles of the solar wind collide with the atoms and molecules in Earth’s atmosphere.

  • Trapped by Earth’s magnetic field and are swept toward the North and South Poles.