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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800 PowerPoint Presentation
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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800

Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800

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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800

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  1. Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe1500-1800

  2. Section 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism

  3. Absolutism • A political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority.

  4. Philip II • Accomplishments • defended Roman Catholicism • helped stimulate the arts

  5. Northern Dutch • Gained their freedom from Spain • United Provinces of the Netherlands • Established a republic

  6. United Provinces of the Netherlands • Differed from neighboring states • elected governors • power depended on landowners and merchants

  7. Absolutism • Monarchs • Believed in Divine Right • God created the monarchy • Monarch acted as God’s representative on Earth • Answers only to God; not subjects

  8. Section2 The Reign of Louis XIV

  9. French Civil Wars • 1562-1598 • Main cause • Religious differences

  10. How did religious and political turmoil in France encourage absolutism? Skepticism?

  11. Henry of Navarre • Protestant prince • Catholic King • First king of the Bourbon dynasty

  12. Edict of Nantes • Issued in hopes of bringing an end to violent religious conflicts in France

  13. Cardinal Richelieu • Minister to Louis XIII • Increased the power of the Bourbon monarchy • Moved against the Huguenots • Weakened the power of the nobles

  14. Louis XIV • Known as the Sun King • France’s most powerful ruler • Boasted, “I am the state”

  15. Cardinal Mazarin • Minister to Louis XIV • Policies drove nobles to rebel against king

  16. Jean Baptiste Colbert • Minister of Finance under Louis XIV • Mercantilism policies • Caused France’s economy to grow and prosper

  17. Versailles • Palace built for Louis XIV • Political purpose • Showed the power of Louis XIV • Was the envy of other monarchs

  18. Spanish Empire • Weakened • Experienced a period of severe inflation and heavy taxes

  19. Section 3 Central European Monarchs Clash

  20. Peace of Augsburg • German rulers agreement to settle religious differences

  21. Thirty Years War • A war in Europe between 1618 and 1648 • Developed into a struggle for dominance between various powers, notably France, Spain, Sweden, and the Holy Roman Empire • Began as a war between the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor and some of his Protestant German states.

  22. Peace of Westphalia • Ended the Thirty Years War

  23. Austria • Maria Theresa • Inherited the Austrian thrown • Only after Charles VI had European power sign an agreement declaring they would recognize the heir

  24. Prussia • Austria’s greatest enemy under Maria Theresa

  25. Fredrick the Great • King of Prussia • Believed a ruler should be a father to his people

  26. Maria Theresa • War of Austrian Succession • fought over the possession of lands that belonged to Maria Theresa

  27. Section 4 Absolute Rulers of Russia

  28. Ivan the Terrible • First Russian ruler to adopt the title of czar

  29. Ivan the Terrible • Why he was called terrible: • Organized a police force that murdered people he considered traitors

  30. Ivan the Terrible • Boyers • Landowning nobles • Suffered the greatest loss of power

  31. Peter the Great

  32. Peter the Great • Serfs • Essential part of the Russian economy

  33. Peter the Great • Liked visiting the west • Wanted to learn about Western customs and technology

  34. Peter the Great • Westernized Russia • Raised the status of women • Made nobles wear western fashion

  35. St. Petersburg • Built by Peter the Great • Why? • Wanted a city on a seaport • Near water routes to Europe • Made it easier to travel west

  36. Section 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

  37. Constitutional Monarchy • 1600s • England’s system of government

  38. James I • King of Scotland • Inherited Elizabeth I’s throne and her conflicts with Parliament

  39. Charles I • King of England • Lost the English Civil War • Tried and put to death

  40. Puritans • Won the English civil war • How? • Cromwell • Defeated the Royalists • Puritans held the king prisoner

  41. Oliver Cromwell • Puritan leader • Ruled England after the end of the English Civil War • Abolished the monarchy • Ruled as a military dictator

  42. Restoration • “Restored” the monarchy, as an institution, to power in England • Began when Charles II took the throne