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  1. Journals and Beyond Carol Tenopir University of Tennessee ctenopir@utk.edu web.utk.edu/~tenopir/ Bloomsbury Conference June 25-26, 2009

  2. Discussions Reviews Articles Communication Means Oral Communication Written Reports Secondary Publications Carol Tenopir

  3. Specimens Lab/Field notebook Sounds Scientists Working Data or Datasets Photos Direct Observations E-mail or conversations Publications • Proceedings • Blogs • Podcasts • E-prints • Journal Articles • Books Meetings Carol Tenopir

  4. Specimens Lab/Field notebook Publications Sounds Scientists Working Data or Datasets Photos Direct Observations E-mail or Conversations Meetings Carol Tenopir

  5. 3 Propositions • Scholarly articles remain essential to science • Sometimes readers only need only a part • Sometimes readers need more than is typically included in a scholarly article Carol Tenopir

  6. Average Article Readings per year per University Faculty Member in the US and Australia (n=1674) Average number of articles read per scientist *311 with outliers Carol Tenopir

  7. University of Tennessee Knoxville Article Downloads 2004 - 2008 Carol Tenopir

  8. Readings from the library have greatly increased over time Carol Tenopir

  9. What makes a difference in reading patterns • subject discipline • responsibilities (weighed more towards teaching or research) • achievement (as defined by winning awards in the last two years and above-average publishing), and • age Carol Tenopir

  10. Differences in… • amount of reading • average time spent per reading • purpose of reading • source of reading • format of reading (electronic or print) • final form of reading (on paper or on screen) • year of publication Carol Tenopir

  11. Ave. readings yearly by faculty in US and Australian Universities by academic discipline (n=1674) Subject Discipline Carol Tenopir

  12. Ave. Minutes per reading per faculty by academic discipline in U.S. and Australian Universities (n=1674) Average minutes per reading Subject Discipline Carol Tenopir

  13. Younger readers prefer electronic(faculty in U.S. and Australia, 2004-2006, n=1251) Print Electronic Under 30 13% 87% 31-40 31% 69% 41-50 44% 56% 51-60 46% 54% Over 60 50% 50% Carol Tenopir

  14. Library Value to Research (comments) “It has helped me open or discard lines of research at the very beginning by knowing what other researchers have published or are soon going to publish.” Western European Institute “…Such access has become an essential research tool.” Japanese University “It would be impossible to be competitive internationally without electronic access to publications.” U.S. University “Electronic access greatly improved and simplified work for publication, preparation of proposals, and research work with students.” U.S. University Carol Tenopir

  15. 2. Sometimes readers only need only a part

  16. 1. JournalIssue Carol Tenopir

  17. 2. Article Granularity Carol Tenopir

  18. 3. Objects granularity: Extract and index figures Carol Tenopir

  19. Potential Uses: 1. To find relevant articles they would not otherwise find “Sometimes tables, figures, maps, etc. are ‘hidden’ in…papers.” “…find data that may not be reflected in the title and abstract of the article” Carol Tenopir

  20. Potential Uses:2. To find things difficult to state in words “looking for geologic maps of a specific area” “for a quick assessment of photographic quality in cytogenetics research” “when I need a specific graph, map, photograph, or figure that would be for presentations or teaching” Carol Tenopir

  21. Potential Uses:3. To compare their work with others’ • It would be useful when “writing original manuscripts and comparing data from other researchers to your own findings” • “seeking published data with which to compare models” • “Knowing or suspecting that a specific experiment has been done, I can look for the data and compare to one I might do or may have already done” Carol Tenopir

  22. Potential Uses: 4. To improve research for “meta-analysis” to “be inspired by how other researchers set up figures/tables” to “expose me to different areas in which similar methods are used” Carol Tenopir

  23. Abstracts are important • Nicholas, Huntington, and Jamali “The Use, Users, and Role of Abstracts in the Digital Scholarly Environment” (Journal of Academic Librarianship July 2007) • King, Tenopir, Clarke, “Measuring Total Reading of Journal Articles,”(d-lib October 2006) Carol Tenopir

  24. Type of Article Viewed (Nicholas, Huntington, Jamali) Carol Tenopir

  25. Readings of Pediatrics Articles by Pediatricians 14,700 readings of all or part of text 7,200 abstract-only readings Carol Tenopir

  26. 3. Sometimes readers need more than is typically included in a scholarly article

  27. Information Professionals leading interdisciplinary science...DataONE (Data Observation Network for Earth) P.I., Bill Michener, University Libraries, Univ. New Mexico Presenter Name Carol Tenopir

  28. Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners (DataNet) NSF Division of Cyberinfrastucture Will create exemplar partners to address “…one of the major challenges of this scientific generation: how to develop the new methods, management structures and technologies to manage the diversity, size, and complexity of current and future data sets and data streams”. Carol Tenopir

  29. DataNet will build new types of organizations that will… integrate library and archival sciences, cyberinfrastructure, computer & information sciences, and domain science expertise to: provide reliable digital preservation, access, integration, and analysis capabilities for science and/or engineering data over a decades-long timeline Carol Tenopir

  30. … engaging diverse partners. Libraries & digital libraries Academic institutions Research networks NSF- and government-funded synthesis & supercomputer centers/networks Governmental organizations International organizations Data and metadata archives Professional societies NGOs Commercial sector Carol Tenopir

  31. Interdisciplinary challenges Environmental science challenges Cyberinfrastructure challenges DataONE: A solution Building on existing CI Creating new CI Changing science culture and institutions Carol Tenopir

  32. Data loss Natural disaster Facilities infrastructure failure Storage failure Server hardware/software failure Application software failure External dependencies Format obsolescence Legal encumbrance Human error Malicious attack by human or automated agents Loss of staffing competencies Loss of institutional commitment Loss of financial stability Changes in user expectations and requirements Carol Tenopir

  33. Scattered data sources“finding the needle in the haystack” Data are massively dispersed Ecological field stations and research centers (100’s) Natural history museums and biocollection facilities (100’s) Agency data collections (100’s to 1000’s) Individual scientists (1000’s to 10,000s to 100,000s) Carol Tenopir

  34. Distributed framework • Coordinating Nodes • retain complete metadata catalog • subset of all data • perform basic indexing • provide network-wide services • ensure data availability (preservation) • provide replication services Flexible, scalable, sustainable network • Member Nodes • diverse institutions • serve local community • provide resources for managing their data

  35. Organizational participation Become a Member Node in DataONE receive data-life-cycle software and updates get access to training materials, curricula, and best practices join in establishing data preservation and related standards Join the DataONE International Users Group as an institutional member set future directions for cyberinfrastructure support and education join the software development community contribute curricula and training materials Libraries, research networks, agencies can: Carol Tenopir

  36. 3 Propositions Scholarly articles remain essential to science Sometimes readers only need only a part Sometimes readers need more than is typically included in a scholarly article Carol Tenopir

  37. For more information web.utk.edu/~tenopir/research/ ctenopir@utk.edu Carol Tenopir