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England and the Glorious Revolution

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  1. England and the Glorious Revolution

  2. Monarchs Clash with Parliament : James I • He came to power after Elizabeth I (who spent too much money and left the government in debt) • He believed kings should have absolute power and argued with parliament over money and how much power parliament should have over the king • Sponsored new translation of the bible, now known as The King James Bible

  3. Charles I Fights Parliament ·      Charles always wanted money from parliament to fight wars with France and Spain. When they didn’t give it to him, he dissolved parliament ·      1628 Petition of Right- parliamanet forced him to sign it, which gave more power to parliament ·      Charles ignored the petition but it was an important step because it said the law was higher than the king ·      1629 dissolved parliament

  4. English Civil War (1642 – 1649) • 1641 parliament passed law to limit royal power • Protests against Charles and he fled north • Civil war- Charles and the Royalists (Cavaliers) against the Puritans • 1646 Oliver Cromwell defeated Charles’s Cavaliers • 1649 Charles put on trial for treason and subsequently put to death- this was the first time that a ruler was put on trial and executed

  5. Cromwell’s Rule • 1649 Cromwell abolished House of Lords and monarchy and established a commonwealth • Drafted a constitution but it was not used- he tore it up and ran the country as a dictator • 1649 Cromwell had to put down a revolt in Ireland Cromwell favored religious tolerance (including Jews) except for Catholics

  6. Charles II Reigns • Restored monarchy = Restoration • Charles restored the theater, events, arts (things the Puritans had banned) • 1679 - Established habeas corpus- the law gave prisoners the right to obtain a writ or document ordering the prisoner to be brought before a judge (instead of the king deciding the sentence)

  7. James II and the Glorious Revolution • 1685- Charles died and James II became king- he was a Catholic king and he moved against the English protestants • Glorious revolution- bloodless overthrow of James in 1688 when James’s protestant daughter and husband, William of Orange in the Netherlands

  8. Political Changes • Constitutional monarchy- laws limit the power of the ruler • Bill of rights, which the U.S. uses to create its own Bill of Rights later • Habeas corpus- can’t imprison anyone without a trial • Checks and balances system • Cabinet system- cabinet was the link between the monarchy and parliament • Leader of the cabinet is the leader of the majority party in parliament and also prime minister • After 1688 there was no British monarch and king was unable to rule without consent of parliament