Download
facts and interpretations n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Facts and interpretations PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Facts and interpretations

Facts and interpretations

86 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Facts and interpretations

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Facts and interpretations A Christmas Carol

  2. Text response writing • Facts = things that happen in the text • These are used as evidence to justify our thoughts, ideas, interpretations or insights about various aspects of the text • Textual evidence includes quotes, examples, literary techniques and so on taken straight from the text • Interpretations = our own thoughts about what these facts tell us about the characters, themes and so on • This is where you show complexity and depth of thought • Use the facts to justify (support, reinforce, validate) your interpretations • Interpretations need to tie the facts/evidence to the topic

  3. Examples – fact or interpretation? • Scrooge is misanthropic • This is an interpretation of Scrooge’s attitude towards other people, supported by evidence such as... • Scrooge’s reputation and demeanour “[warns] all human sympathy to keep its distance.” • Fact (this is EVIDENCE of the above interpretation – this is taken straight from the text) • Scrooge changes because he is afraid of the future Marley’s ghost has shown him • Interpretation • Marley’s ghost tells Scrooge that he has “yet a chance and hope of escaping [his] fate” which is described as “incessant torture of remorse” • Fact • Dickens uses personification to describe Scrooge’s home which had gotten lost while “playing at hide and seek with other houses” • Fact • Scrooge’s house is isolated and dreary, much like himself. • Interpretation

  4. How do you link facts (evidence) and your own ideas (interpretations)? • Reinforce • Show • Emphasise • Highlight • Demonstrate • Depict • Illustrate • Reveal • Suggest • Imply • Indicate • Evident • Represent • And so on… You need linking words, such as  • Ensure that every time you make an interpretation about a character, theme or whatever, you justify this idea with evidence (facts) from the text • In text response, all of your interpretations and evidence must link to the given topic • Example: Scrooge’s misanthropy (interpretation) is evident as his reputation and demeanour “[warns] all human sympathy to keep its distance.” (evidence) • Example: Marley’s ghost tells Scrooge that he has “yet a chance and hope of escaping [his] fate” (evidence) which indicatesthat Scrooge changes because he is afraid of the future Marley’s ghost has shown him (interpretation). • Example: Dickens uses personification to describe Scrooge’s home which had gotten lost while “playing at hide and seek with other houses” (fact). This impliesthat the house is isolated and dreary, much like Scrooge himself (interpretation).

  5. But wait...there’s more! • If a topic for text response explicitly asks for you to discuss the author’s point of view or intention (e.g. ‘Although Dickens’ story is entertaining, even enthralling, it is mainly intended to educate.’ 2011 exam topic)... (in fact, even if the topic doesn’t explicitly say to do this, embedding some deeper analysis can still lift your mark, as long as it is relevant to the topic!)

  6. The third level of text analysis • Level 1 = facts (stuff taken straight from the text) • Level 2 = interpretations (what do these facts tell us about characters and themes?) • Level 3 = broader implications (what was the author trying to suggest/highlight through these examples? What is the message beyond the text?) • Linking words to bring these ideas together • Example: The archetypal characterisation of Scrooge, whose miserly behaviours are exaggerated to the point where he “preferred the dark” as “it was cheaper,” is used to represent the “covetous” attitude of the wealthy middle and upper classes in Victorian London. The cold imagery associated with Scrooge such as the “frosty rime” upon his head, positions readers to criticise his persona, and particularly his ill-treatment of the poor such as his clerk Cratchit. Through the stark polarisation of these characters, Dickens aimed to enlighten the rich to their own inertia and to not only acknowledge the plight of the poor, but also to become more generous and kind to those in need.

  7. Sample paragraph • Scrooge is a bitter and lonely man because he chooses to be. In his adult life, it is clear that Scrooge actively contributes to his own alienation and misanthropy, however it can be argued that this bleak attitude was cultivated through forces outside of his control through his childhood and adolescence. As a child, Scrooge was neglected and grew up in an isolated, “chilly” boarding house where his only company were fictional characters such as “Ali Baba” conjured to life through his imagination, which reveals that he was accustomed to loneliness from a young age. However, when he was apprenticed to Fezziwig, he was shown a role model of festivity and generosity, as shown when the “jovial” man insisted on “no more work” due to it being “Christmas Eve”. Despite his happy apprenticeship, he still insisted on a life focused on the accumulation of wealth, even rejecting his love Belle for a “golden [idol]”, highlighted through Belle’s accusation that his “nature” has “changed” and that he would prefer not to wed a “dowerless girl”. It can be argued that Scrooge’s unhappy childhood instilled a fear of hardship in him, as in the conversation with Belle he remarks that “nothing…is so hard as poverty”. It is ironic to note that in Scrooge’s pursuit of happiness where he believes that wealth above all else will lead to satisfaction, it is this very aim that leads him to consciously turn away from love and family which had given him joy in the past, such as through his gleeful sister Fan. As an adult, Scrooge dismisses and shuns all things festive and delightful, highlighted in the scene where he rejects Fred’s invitation to dinner and through the “covetous” and “tight-fisted” caricature painted of him in Stave One which “warn[ed] all human sympathy to keep its distance”. It can be seen through Scrooge’s choices, based on values instilled in him from a young age, that Dickens suggests that it is companionship and togetherness that can overcome hardship rather than material or financial gain. Therefore, although Scrooge endured a melancholy childhood, he allowed his bitterness to endure later in life which leads to him making deliberate choices which lead to his cold and scathing nature.

  8. Paragraph evaluation • Does your paragraph have enough detail to show depth of knowledge of the text? (about 250 words) • Does your paragraph follow a clear structure where the topic and linking sentences reinforce your contention about the topic? • Does your paragraph clearly link FACTS (evidence) to INTERPRETATIONS using linking words/phrases? • Are these INTERPRETATIONS explicitly relevant to the topic? • Have you incorporated a discussion of LITERARY DEVICES and how they reveal ideas relevant to the topic? • Have you discussed the author’s VIEWS AND VALUES that are evident from the facts/evidence you have included? • Are these views and values relevant to the topic? • How many times have you used key topic words (or similar) throughout your paragraphs?

  9. Facts, links, interpretations,views and values In his adult life, it is clear that Scrooge actively contributes to his own alienation and misanthropy, however it can be argued that this bleak attitude was cultivated through forces outside of his control through his childhood and adolescence. As a child, Scrooge was neglected and grew up in an isolated, “chilly” boarding house where his only company were fictional characters such as “Ali Baba” conjured to life through his imagination, which reveals that he was accustomed to loneliness from a young age. However, when he was apprenticed to Fezziwig, he was shown a role model of festivity and generosity, as shown when the “jovial” man insisted on “no more work” due to it being “Christmas Eve”. Despite his happy apprenticeship, he still insisted on a life focused on the accumulation of wealth, even rejecting his love Belle for a “golden [idol]”, highlighted through Belle’s accusation that his “nature” has “changed” and that he would prefer not to wed a “dowerless girl”. It can be argued that Scrooge’s unhappy childhood instilled a fear of hardship in him, as in the conversation with Belle he remarks that “nothing…is so hard as poverty”. It is ironic to note that in Scrooge’s pursuit of happiness where he believes that wealth above all else will lead to satisfaction, it is this very aim that leads him to consciously turn away from love and family which had given him joy in the past, such as through his gleeful sister Fan. As an adult, Scrooge dismisses and shuns all things festive and delightful, highlightedin the scene where he rejects Fred’s invitation to dinner and through the “covetous” and “tight-fisted” caricature painted of him in Stave One which “warn[ed] all human sympathy to keep its distance”. It can be seen through Scrooge’s choices, based on values instilled in him from a young age, that Dickens suggests that it is companionship and togetherness that can overcome hardship rather than material or financial gain. Therefore, although Scrooge endured a melancholy childhood, he allowed his bitterness to endure later in life which leads to him making deliberate choices which lead to his cold and scathing nature.

  10. Links to topic words • Bitter and lonely – alienated, misanthropic, hostile, alone, isolated… (opposite: togetherness, kindness etc.) • Chooses – deliberate, conscious, choice, decision, want, desire, preferable… (opposite: outside of control, instilled) In his adult life, it is clear that Scrooge actively contributes to his own alienation and misanthropy, however it can be argued that this bleak attitude was cultivated through forces outside of his control through his childhood and adolescence. As a child, Scrooge was neglected and grew up in an isolated, “chilly” boarding house where his only company were fictional characters such as “Ali Baba” conjured to life through his imagination, which reveals that he was accustomed to loneliness from a young age. However, when he was apprenticed to Fezziwig, he was shown a role model of festivity and generosity, as shown when the “jovial” man insisted on “no more work” due to it being “Christmas Eve”. Despite his happy apprenticeship, he still insisted on a life focused on the accumulation of wealth, even rejecting his love Belle for a “golden [idol]”, highlighted through Belle’s accusation that his “nature” has “changed” and that he would prefer not to wed a “dowerless girl”. It can be argued that Scrooge’s unhappy childhood instilled a fear of hardship in him, as in the conversation with Belle he remarks that “nothing…is so hard as poverty”. It is ironic to note that in Scrooge’s pursuit of happiness where he believes that wealth above all else will lead to satisfaction, it is this very aim that leads him to consciouslyturn away from love and family which had given him joy in the past, such as through his gleeful sister Fan. As an adult, Scrooge deliberatelydismisses and shuns all things festive and delightful, highlighted in the scene where he rejects Fred’s invitation to dinner and through the “covetous” and “tight-fisted” caricature painted of him in Stave One which “warn[ed] all human sympathy to keep its distance”. It can be seen through Scrooge’s choices, based on values instilled in him from a young age, that Dickens suggests that it is companionship and togetherness that can overcome hardship rather than material or financial gain. Therefore, although Scrooge endured a melancholy childhood, he allowed his bitterness to endure later in life which leads to him making deliberate choices which led to his cold and scathing nature.