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Cryptography and Mary Queen of Scots. Alice Yuyen Chang Spring 2004 at Chang Gung University A Lecture Given in Freshman English Courses. Think before you read. What will be the best methods to guarantee the security of classified documents or your love letters?

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cryptography and mary queen of scots

Cryptography and Mary Queen of Scots

Alice Yuyen Chang

Spring 2004 at Chang Gung University

A Lecture Given in Freshman English Courses

think before you read
Think before you read . .
  • What will be the best methods to guarantee the security of classified documents or your love letters?
  • What are the functions of languages?
  • What is the relationship between communication and decipherment?
essay questions
Essay questions:
  • Please give five examples of the secret communication in ancient times and analyze and compare their advantages and disadvantages.
  • What is the difference between steganography and cryptography? What functions are they expected to achieve? What technology, science, or human knowledge will be required behind both skills?
slide4
Briefly define the concept of plain text and cipher text. Based on your definitions, please comment on the following statements:
    • 1. Human languages tend to hide the true meanings.
    • 2. There is always secret behind the words.
    • 3. Sometimes, the plain text will convey the most mysterious secret.
slide5
Which of the following factors will best prompt the breakthroughs in code-breaking: politics, economy, technology, education, religion, or others? Please give examples to back your viewpoints.
slide6
Code
  • cipher, cryptograph, symbol
  • canon, charter, codex, constitution, convention, custom, digest, discipline, ethics, etiquette, manners, maxim, method, regulation, rule, system
decode
decode

break, calculate, clear up, compute, count, decipher, estimate, figure, reckon, resolve, solve, unravel

  • analyze, break, break down, cipher, construe, crack, deduce, disentangle, dope out, elucidate, explain, expound, figure out, make out, puzzle out, solve, spell, unfold, unravel, unriddle
to be or not to be

To be or not to be!

That’s the answer- - -

egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian Hieroglyphs
  • The earliest hieroglyphics date back to 3000 BC, and this form of ornate writing endured for the next three and a half thousand years.
  • the Greek word hieroglyphica means "sacred carvings"
picture and phonetics
Picture and phonetics

http://www.nku.edu/~anthro/awards.html

rosetta stone
Rosetta Stone
  • The Rosetta Stone was used by scholars to decipher ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics using "homology" with the Demotic and Greek languages. Can three-dimensional protein structures be used like the Rosetta Stone to decode the functions of genes identified in the various genome projects?
slide15
ROSETTA STONE (replica).Original of black basalt.45" high x 28.5" wide x 11" thick.http://mcclungmuseum.utk.edu/permex/egypt/eg-rose1.jpg
british museum http users bigpond net au mbirse ris photos page07 htm
British Museumhttp://users.bigpond.net.au/mbirse/ris/photos/page07.htm
  • A VERY famous stone tablet - The Rosetta Stone. This tablet was discovered by Napoleon during his conquest of Egypt.
three languages
Three languages
  • At the top -- 14 lines of hieroglyphs
  • In the center -- 32 lines of demotic (a simpler,cursive, form of hieroglyphic characters whichis much easier to write, and which thereforebecame the popular form of writing)
  • At the bottom -- 54 lines of Greek
the science of secrecy bbc
The Science of Secrecy/ BBC
  • The correspondence between Mary Queen of Scots and Anthony Babington was encrypted with a substitution cipher.
  • http://www.channel4.com/science/microsites/S/secrecy/page1c.html
plaintext ciphertex
Plaintext/ ciphertex
  • The original message is called a plaintext. The disguised message is called a ciphertext.
  • Encryption means any procedure to convert plaintext into ciphertext. Decryption means any procedure to convert ciphertext into plaintext.
slide23
http://library.wustl.edu/units/spec/rarebooks/semeiology/arnold3.gifJOHANNES TRITHEMIUS (1462-1516)Polygraphique et Vniverselle Escriture Cabalistique.Paris, Jacques Kerver, 1561.
slide24
Title Page from Cryptomenytices Cryptographia There is some remarkable evidence in that mysterious book on Cryptography published on the Continent at Luneburg in 1624, and attributed to Gustavus Selenus, alias Trithemius, alias Man in the Moon.
slide25
Giovanni Battista Porta, De Furtivis Literarum Notis (1563), p. 73. A working set of rococo cipher discs was packaged with it. The work was reprinted in 1591, '93, 1602 {x2}, '03, and '06.http://fly.hiwaay.net/~paul/cryptology/portadisc.html
the second cryptographic shakespeare by penn leary
The Second Cryptographic Shakespeare by Penn Leary
  • http://home.att.net/~mleary/index.htm
  • Non semper ea sunt quae videntur.(Things are not always what they seem).--Phaedrus, A.D. 8
  • Shakespeare is a voice merely; who and what he was that sang, that sings, we know not. --Emerson
  • You would play upon me; you would seem to know my stops; you would pluck out the heart of my mystery... --Shakespeare
a brief history of cryptography
A Brief History of Cryptography
  • The use of cryptography is as old as the art of communication. In times of war, Julius Caesar employed a shift cipher to secure his transmissions to his generals:
  • By deriving a cipher text alphabet from the plain text alphabet through the use of a secret key, Caesar was able to transmit sensitive information to his generals securely.
slide29
2.
  • The generals would in turn decrypt the cipher text message into plain text form by employing the same secret key.
  • Cryptography became a serious issue during the Second World War as both axis and allied forces employed cryptography to secure national secrets.
the scottish heritage
The Scottish Heritage
  • She was the quintessential queen: statuesque, regal, dazzlingly beautiful. Her royal birth gave her claim to the thrones of two nations; her marriage to the young French dauphin promised to place a third glorious crown on her noble head.
          • http://www.mcgrorty.com/scottish_heritage.htm
8 december 1542 mary is born at linlithgow palace in west lothian

8 December 1542 Mary is born at Linlithgow Palace in West Lothian.

8 February 1587 Mary is executed in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay between the hours of nine and ten in the morning.http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk/timeline.htm

slide38
http://www.nale.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/recent/pictures/linpalace.htmlA view of Linlithgow Palace across the loch.
the portcullis gate
THE PORTCULLIS GATE
  • http://www.nonvi.com/sm/edin16.html
source of the following pictures

Source of the following pictures:

http://www.caledoniancastles.co.uk/castles/lothian/edinburgh/rock.htm#port

the last letter of mary queen of scots queen of scotland 8 feb 1587
The Last Letter of Mary, Queen of ScotsQueen of Scotland  8 Feb. 1587
  • http://www.nls.uk/digitallibrary/mqs/trans1.htm
execution
Execution
  • 8 February 1587 Mary is executed in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay between the hours of nine and ten in the morning.
castle of fotheringhay
Castle of Fotheringhay
  • Her heart and organs were buried deep within the Castle of Fotheringhay but the exact spot was never revealed. The body was then embalmed and incarcerated in a heavy lead coffin which remained unburied in the Castle until 30th July 1587, where it was taken at the dead of night for fear of public protest, to Peterborough Cathedral.
references
references
  • http://www.soi.wide.ad.jp/class/20000009/slides/05/index_3.html
  • http://www.dvnet.com/extra/education/cryptography_history.asp
  • Important Events in Computing History

http://www.rit.edu/~xyg8720/comphistory.html

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