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MARY STUART Queen of Scots 1542-1587. Mary Stuart. Was born on December 8, 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian Parents: James V and Marie de Guise House of Stewart /Stuart Catholicism 3 marriages, son James VI. Childhood.
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Mary Stuart • Was born on December 8, 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian • Parents: James V and Marie de Guise • House of Stewart /Stuart • Catholicism • 3 marriages, son James VI
Childhood • Mary became Queen of Scots at only 6 days old, when her father James V died. She was the Britain´s youngest monarch ever. • As a regent of the kingdom was appointed her relative, James Stuart • Her coronation took place at the Royal chapel of Stirling castle on September 9, 1543. Mary was only 9 moths old. • ,,Rough wooing“ – Henry VIII began series of raids on Scottish territory designed to impose the marriage to his son on Mary
Marie de Guise formed alliance with her native France through which France should acquire protection. • The six years old Mary was engaged to the young heir of French throne, Dauphin Francois. • She moved to France, where she spent the rest of her childhood at the court of her father-in-law, Henri II • She corresponded regularly her mother, who stayed in Scotland to rule as Mary´s regent.
1st marriage – Francois II • On April 24, 1558 Mary and Francois got married at Notre Dame. • Mary Stuart was popular at French court, they found her very pretty, witty, grafecul and self-assured • When Henri II died, Francois succeeded the throne and Mary became the Queen of France • In 1560 died Mary´s mother Marie de Guise and a few months later also Francois for ear infection. • Mary, at her age of 18, became a Queen widow
Return to Scotland • After her husband´s death, she decided to return to her native Scotland • She wrote Elizabeth to ask her for permission to go through England on her way back to Scotland, but she denied, because Mary didn´t want to sign Edinburgh contract • When she came back, she had to rule Scotland as a Catholic queen in the midst of the Protestant reformation • Her illegitimate half-brother James Stuart, 1st Earl of Moray, was a leader of the Protestant party • She had also many confrontations with protestant reformer John Knox
Mary Stuart x Elizabeth I • Elizabeth and Mary were cousins and they corresponded quite ofter, but they never saw each other. • Mary was rightful heir to the English throne through her gradmother Margaret Tudor • Elizabeth I was considered by the Catholics to be illegitimate, because of her mother, 2nd wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyene • Elizabeth I felt in danger, that is why she forced Mary to sign Edinburgh contract in order to give up her demands to the English throne and why Mary was kept in confinement so long
2nd marriage – Lord Darnley • Mary had to marry another king. There were two men she were considering – Don Carlos and her cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. • On July 29, 1565 at Holyrood Palace she married Lord Darnley • This marriage proved to be a disaster. Darnley was arrogant, dissolute, self-seeking and power demanding. That is why Mary spent much time with Italian musician David Rizzio. Darnley, driven by jealousy, murdered Rizzio right in front of Mary. • Mary was pregnant at that time and in June 1566 at Edinburgh castle she gave birth to a son James Charles
On the night of February 10, 1567 , Darnley, recovering from syphilis at a house at Kirk´o Field near Edinburgh, was murdered. The house was blown up with a gunpowder and Darnley and his servant were found dead. • James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, was considered to be responsible for this act, but in the end he was found guiltless.
3rd marriage – Earl of Bothwell • Despite advice urging her to the contrary, on May 15, 1567 Mary Stuart married James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell • She became pregnant with twins, which she later miscarried. • The Scottish nobility turned against Mary and Bothwell and raised an army against them. They faced the Lords at Carberry Hill, but Mary´s troops were decimated and she was forced to negotiate with them. Bothwell was allowed to escape but Mary was took to Edinburgh and imprisoned in Lochleven castle.
Abdication and imprisonment • Imprisoned at the Lochleven castle, she was bullied, threatened and cajole into abdication in favour of her infant son James. As a regent was appointed her brother James Stuart, Earl of Moray • Mary escaped and managed to raise a small army, but she was defeated again at the Battle of Langside on May 13, 1568. • She fled to England to seek protection and support from her ,,dear sister and cousin“ Elizabeth I
Captivity in England • When Mary arrived to England, Queen Elizabeth I refused to grant her an audience and instead she placed Mary in confinement in Carlisle and ordered an enquiry into the murder of Darnley • Main evidence presented at the enquiry were so called ,,Casket letters“- set of 8 letters written by Mary to Bothwell. • Meanwhile, her son, now king of Scots, were brought up by her enemies and was in connection with Elizabeth
Desperate Mary entered into a plot with Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. They plotted to assassinate Elizabeth I and place Mary to the throne. Plot was uncovered and Howard was executed. • The major plot for the political takeover was The Babington plot. Anthony Babington played the leading role in a conspiracy to free Mary. They were sending each other coded messages. But plot was also uncovered, plotters were executed and Mary put on trial for her offences. • Mary was Elizabeth´s prisoner for 19 years
Trial and execution • Mary was put on trial for treason. It took place in Fotheringhay castle in Northamptonshire. • She was accused of being implicated in the Babington plot and of attempted assassination of Elizabeth I. • Mary had been denied access to defence counsel • Mary Stuart was ultimately convicted of treason and was sentenced to beheading
The night before the execution, Mary was writing letters and distributing her belongings to her faithful servants, who remained with her in captivity • The execution took place at Fotheringhay castle on February 8, 1587 • The executioner had to blow three times to took off queen´s head – her lips still seemed to move some time afterwards
In 1588 was Mary Stuart buried at Peterborough Cathedral, but her body was exhumed in 1612, when her son James VI ordered to reinterred her in Westminster Abbey • James succeeded to the English throne in 1603
Sources • www.wikipedia.org • www.englishmonarchs.co.uk • www.panovnici.cz • Procesy, které změnily svět – Curt Riess, AL press • Velké procesy- právo a spravedlnost v dějinách- Uwe Schultz, Brána
Thank you for your attention! Veronika Novotná