Surrogacy and Cloning By: Liz Dove, Ebony Staples, Taylor Cavette, Cassandra Johnson, Megan Canny, & Cassandra Kimberly
Surrogacy • Definition: woman who gestates a fetus for others, usually for a couple or another woman • Traditional surrogacy • Gestational surrogacy
Purdy’s Stance on Surrogacy • Laura Purdy’s approach to surrogacy: • Pros: • Infertility • Health risks • Disease prevention • Non-traditional families • Cons: • Baby-selling • Potential for coercion
Rothman’s Stance on Surrogacy • Paid surrogacy is baby-selling • Children are not for sale • Fetus is part of the maternal body
Surrogacy – Interesting Fact • Traditional Surrogacy Fees • $40,000 - $65,000 • Gestational Surrogacy Fees • $75,000 - $100,000
Surrogacy – Major Moral Theories • Utilitarian • Rule-Utilitarian • Kantian • Natural Law Theory
Surrogacy vs. Adoption • Surrogacy- • Genetic relation to child • Usually cheaper • Adoption • No genetic relation to child • Usually more expensive • More difficult to adopt due to scarcity of children
Case of Mary Beth Whitehead • Over 20 years ago Whitehead was a surrogate mother for William and Elizabeth Sterns. • After the birth on March 27, 1986, Whitehead would not give the baby to the Stern’s and left the state with the infant.
Cloning • Definition: the asexual production of a genetically identical entity from an existing one • Important to understand a clone is not a perfect copy of an individual • Instead, a clone is a living thing that shares a set of genetic instructions with another • Video
Cloning • Reproductive cloning • Creating a genetic duplicate of an adult animal or human • 1997 an adult sheep was cloned, which resulted in the birth of “Dolly”
The National Academy of Science’s Stance on Cloning • Clones, although identical will not be identical physically or characteristically • Clones experience different environments and nutritional inputs in utero • Different contributions made to each “twin”
David Brock’s Stance on Cloning • The right to ignorance is not violated by cloning technology • The “twin” will still have an open future
Cloning – Pros PROS • Solves problem of having a child with a genetic connection • Eliminates transfer of genetic disease or health risk • Eliminates shortage of organ donations or non-matching organ tissue types
Cloning- Cons CONS • Violates the right to a unique identity for the resulting clone • Violates right to an open future • Unnatural and replaces natural procreation with the artificial manufacture of children • Higher number of birth defects
Cloning – Major Moral Theories • Utilitarian - Good verses bad consequences for everyone involved -Cloning is morally admissible -Rule Utilitarian’s view -My View’s on Cloning
Cloning-Major Moral Theories • Kantian Deontology -Kant states, “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own words or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end.” -It is possible by this theory to oppose or defend cloning.
Cloning-Major Moral Theories • Natural Law Theory -Moral standards discerned in nature through human reason -Doctrine of Double Effect -Backed by Roman Catholic Church -Morally impermissible
Conclusion Cloning- Major Moral Theories -Utilitarian -Kantian Deontology -Natural Law Theory
References Adoption.com. (2010). Surrogacy. Retrieved from http://adopting.adoption.com/child/surrogacy.html Discovery Networks. (2009 April 29). Human cloning [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tbxN5uwaqA JNJ Health. (2009, December 7). Gestational surrogacy [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2VcxbAgrWMc&feature=related U.S. Department of Energy Genome Program. (2010). Cloning Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml Vaughn, L. (2010). Bioethics: Principles, issues, and cases. New York, NY: Oxford.