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    1. ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ( ??? ??????? )

    2. ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? 1- ???? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? 2- ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? 3- ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? 4- ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????

    3. ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? 0 ? 180 ??? 0 ? 180 0 180

    4. ????? ???????

    5. ??? ???????

    6. ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????

    8. ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????

    9. ????? ??????? ????????? 1- ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? 2- ???? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? 3- ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? 4- ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????

    10. ????? ??????? ?????????

    11. 1- ???? ?????? : ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????

    12. 2- ???? ??? : ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????

    13. 3- ?????? ????? ????????

    14. ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????

    15. ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???

    16. ????? ??????? ??????????

    17. 1-?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ) ???????? ) ? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????

    18. 2- ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ( ???????? ) ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????

    19. 3- ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????

    20. 4- ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????

    21. ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????

    22. ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? : ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????

    23. ????? ??????? ????????

    24. 1- ?????? ??????? ( gnomonic projection ) ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????

    25. 2- ?????? ???????? (stereographic projection) ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????

    26. 3- ?????? ??????? ( ???? ) ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? = 1.367 ?? ??? ?????

    27. 4- ?????? ?????? ???????? ( ????? ) ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????

    28. ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????

    29. ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????

    30. ????? ??????? ??????

    31. 1- ????? ???? ( Winkls projection ) ???? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????

    32. 2- ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????

    33. 3- ???? ??????? ( ( Mercator

    37. ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? 37.25 ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? 31.5.22 ???? ?? ????????

    41. ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? UTM

    42. ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? Lambert ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?????