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  1. Tobacco • Forms • Cigarettes • Smokeless tobacco • Pipes and cigars • The drug contained in tobacco is nicotine • Nicotine is highly addictive

  2. Harmful Substances in Tobacco • carcinogen- a cancer-causing substance

  3. Harmful Substances in Tobacco • The three substances in tobacco smoke which are especially harmful: • Nicotine • Carbon monoxide • Tar- thick liquid which coats the lungs • Smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to smoking • Contains many of the same chemicals and at least 28 different carcinogens

  4. Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Respiratory acute bronchitis pneumonia chronic bronchitis emphysema lung cancer tracheal cancer laryngeal cancer asthma Circulatory coronary heart disease stroke hypertension atherosclerosis heart attack

  5. Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Digestive mouth cancer throat cancer gum disease tooth loss liver cancer colon cancer acid reflux ulcers Endocrine pancreatic cancer diabetes

  6. Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Reproductive infertility cervical cancer menstrual disorders low birth weight Sudden Infant Death Syndrome miscarriage ectopic pregnancy Urinary bladder cancer kidney cancer Skeletal osteoporosis

  7. Diseases Associated with Tobacco Use Other macular degeneration (blindness) cataracts vocal cord polyps chronic fatigue

  8. Primary Diseases from Tobacco Use • Heart Disease • damages walls of arteries • raises cholesterol levels • increases blood pressure • Emphysema • destroys alveoli in the lungs • Lung Cancer • Mouth Cancer

  9. Second-Hand/Sidestream Smoke • second-hand smoke- air that has been contaminated by tobacco smoke • sidestream smoke- smoke from the burning end of a cigarette • Contains twice as much tar and nicotine as what the smoker inhales because it is not filtered • Long-term exposure to second-hand smoke poses the same health risks as smoking

  10. Tobacco Addiction • addiction- a physical and/or psychological need for a drug or other substance • Tobacco use typically leads to two types of dependence: • physiological dependence- the body itself feels a direct need for a drug • psychological dependence- the mind sends the body the message that it needs more of a substance

  11. Physiological Dependence on Tobacco • Nicotine increases the levels of a neurotransmitter involved in feelings of pleasure and reward (dopamine), making it highly addictive • When tobacco users go a period of time without nicotine, they experience withdrawal • withdrawal- unpleasant symptoms that occur when someone stops using an addictive substance • anxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue

  12. Psychological Dependence on Tobacco • Tobacco use is often part of one’s habits, built into his or her daily routine • Psychological dependence also results from false perceived effects of tobacco use: • Provides energy • Helps relax • Controls weight • “Benefits” are false, but if one believes that they are true, they reinforce the tobacco use

  13. Reasons Teens Begin Using Tobacco • Attempt to appear sophisticated and mature • Peer pressure • Behavior modeled by others around them • Glorified in movies, TV, and advertisements • Rebellion • Others?

  14. Tobacco Advertising • Tobacco is intensely marketed. Only the automobile industry markets more heavily. • Kids and teens constitute the majority of new smokers—tobacco advertising is designed to appeal to them • Emphasis on youthful vigor, sexual attraction, and themes of independence

  15. Why is tobacco still legal? IT IS BIG BUSINESS!!!!! The tobacco industry spent $20,680,315 to lobby Congress in 2002. That amounts to a whopping $138,794 spent on lobbying for every day Congress was in session. That is on top of the $9,424,612 Big Tobacco gave in political contributions during the 2002 election cycle.

  16. KEY FACTS  • Percent of high school students who smoke: 28% • Percent of 8th graders who smoke daily: 5.5% • Approximately 90 percent of smokers begin smoking before the age of 21. • Most people who smoke would like to quit • Most people who begin smoking do not think that they will become addicted • 1 in 5 U.S. deaths are attributable to smoking

  17. The Bottom Line  Not that many people are smoking. If you don’t start when you are young, you probably will not start. If you do start when you are young, you probably will become addicted.

  18. Reasons Not to Smoke • You will be healthier and live longer • You won’t smell • You will save a great deal of money • You’ll keep your senses of smell and taste • You will have fewer allergies • You will not be confined to smoking areas • You will have more energy and stamina • You will have healthier skin • You will not hurt the health of others who have to breathe your smoke

  19. Alcohol • How alcohol affects the body: • Alcohol slows neurotransmitter function, depressing the central nervous system • Acts on: • Spinal cord- slows reactions • Cerebellum- alters balance, posture, and coordination • Cerebrum- impairs senses and judgement

  20. Alcohol

  21. Factors in Individual Effects of Alcohol • Size and gender • Food in the stomach • How fast the person drinks • Other substances in the body • Tolerance- when the body becomes used to a drug, it takes more of the drug to produce the same effect

  22. Short-Term Effects of Alcohol • Blood-alcohol concentration (BAC)- amount of alcohol in the blood, expressed as a percentage • Ohio’s legal limit: 0.1% • Euphoria (BAC=.03 to .12%) • Become self confident and daring • Attention span shortens • Judgment becomes impaired • Fine motor control diminishes

  23. Short-Term Effects of Alcohol • Excitement (BAC= .09 to .25%) • Become sleepy • Trouble understanding or remembering things • Reactions diminish • Movements become uncoordinated • Loose balance • Blurred vision • Senses diminish

  24. Short-Term Effects of Alcohol • Confusion (BAC= .18% to .30%) • Dizziness • Highly emotional • Sleepy • Slurred speech • Sensation of pain is reduced

  25. Short-Term Effects of Alcohol • Stupor (BAC= .25% to .40%) • Can barely move • Cannot respond to stimuli • May vomit • May lapse in and out of consciousness • Coma (BAC= .35% to .50%) • Unconscious • Body temperature feels cool • Slowed breathing and heart rate • Death (BAC above .50%)

  26. Long-Term Effects of Alcohol Abuse • Depressed immune system • Heart disease • Cirrhosis- scarring of the liver, impairing liver function • Cancer (mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, & liver) • Kidney failure • Hypertension • Malnutrition • Ulcers • Impotence • Bone Deterioration • Personality Disorders (aggression, anxiety, depression) • Alcoholism- disease marked by physical and psychological dependence on alcohol

  27. Alcoholism • 1 in 10 drinkers will become an alcoholic • Youth who drink before the age of 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol dependency than those who begin drinking at age 21.

  28. Recognizing Alcoholism • Drinking increasing amounts of alcohol and becoming drunk often • Placing drinking ahead of other activities • Drinking alone • Experiencing blackouts and not remembering what he/she said or did • Shows personality changes when drinking • Making excuses for drinking, promising to quit (but doesn’t ), and/or refusing to admit how much he/she is drinking • Treatment is possible—involves admitting problem, detoxification, and counseling

  29. Alcohol and Crime • More than 1 in 3 convicted offenders were drinking at the time of their offense. • An estimated 50 to 75% of domestic violence cases involve alcohol. • in 2006, 17,941 people were killed in alcohol-related crashes, representing 41% of all traffic fatalities. • Over a third of all deaths among 15-20 year-olds are alcohol related. • NOTE: Minimum 6 month loss of license (even if no car is involved) and $500 fine for underage drinking

  30. Drugs • Drug- any nonfood substance taken into the body that can change the structure or function of the body or mind • Drug use, misuse, and abuse: • Use- drug is taken when needed, as directed, for the purpose intended • Misuse- legal drug is used in a way that it is not intended • Abuse- taking drugs that are illegal or not intended to be taken into the body

  31. Drug Classifications (By Effect) • stimulants- speed up the body’s functions • amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine • depressants- slow down the body’s functions • barbiturates, alcohol • hallucinogens- distort moods, thoughts, and senses • LSD, PCP • narcotics- relieve pain and dull the senses • morphine, codeine, oxyconton • Highly addictive

  32. Marijuana • Dried leaves of the hemp plant, usually smoked • Active ingredient is Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) • THC is able to bind to many receptors in the brain, resulting in a range of effects: • Cerebellum- alters balance and coordination • Cerebrum- weakens memory, alters sensory perception, results in erratic emotional responses

  33. Effects of Marijuana Abuse • Effects of the drug on the individual depend on: • How much THC is in it • User’s experience and expectations • How it is taken • Whether or not it is used with other drugs

  34. Short-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse • Impaired memory • Distorted perception • Difficulty thinking and problem solving • Loss of coordination • Increased heart rate • Anxiety • Marijuana is an addictive drug • Withdrawal from THC has been shown to be like that of cocaine, heroine, and alcohol

  35. Long-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse • Cancer • Marijuana contains some of the same, and sometimes even more cancer-causing chemicals found in tobacco • Lung disease • Marijuana contains the same irritants (tar, chemicals) as cigarettes • Users develop coughing/wheezing and become more susceptible to colds and pneumonia • Compromised immune function • THC damages lymphocytes and lymphatic tissue, weakening the body’s ability to fight infectious disease

  36. Long-Term Effects of Marijuana Abuse • Amotivational syndrome • Condition marked by chronic lethargy, lack of focus, and inability to concentrate • Further drug use • Marijuana is a “gateway drug” • Studies show that few young people use other illegal drugs without first using marijuana • Decreased testosterone levels in males • THC is fat soluble, and it concentrates in tissues with high fat content. One of such areas is the testes. • This inhibits testosterone production, possibly to the point where secondary female characteristics are observed

  37. Why do young people abuse marijuana? • Misconceptions of dangers • Misunderstanding of health consequences • Ignorance of possibilities of addiction and social disorders • Influence of popular culture • Marijuana has been a popular image tool • Symbolizes an antisocial attitude

  38. Inhalants • Inhalants are a class of substances that are not drugs themselves, but have a drug effect when their vapors are inhaled • Substances are common household products (ex.- cleaning products, aerosols) • The drug effect of inhalants is a result of oxygen deprivation • Chemicals and/or gasses displace oxygen in the blood, resulting in inadequate oxygen to the body, most notably to the brain

  39. Short-Term Effects of Inhalant Abuse • Nausea, vomiting/diarrhea • Blurred vision • Loss of coordination • Headache • Chest pain • Runny or bloody nose • Ringing in the ears

  40. Inhalant Abuse • Inhalants can be addictive • Inhalants can kill at any time, even on the first use • Asphyxia or suffocation • Choking on vomit • Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome • Instant death from inhaling toxins. Toxins interfere with the heart’s pace-making mechanism, producing cardiac arrest

  41. Long-Term Effects of Inhalant Abuse • Brain damage • Toxins dissolve protective covering around neurons • Damage to peripheral nerves • Numbness, tingling, paralysis • Lung damage • Liver damage • Kidney stones • Toxins interfere with kidney’s ability to control blood pH • Leukemia • Muscle atrophy

  42. Steroids • Chemicals similar to the male sex hormone testosterone • Anabolic- builds tissue • Anabolic steroids can grow muscle at an increased rate • Steroids enter the body’s cells and cause them to increase protein production • Taken in pill form or injected

  43. Consequences of Steroid Abuse • For adolescents: • Halted growth due to premature skeletal maturation • For males: • Shrinking of the testicles • Development of breasts • Baldness • Infertility • For females: • Growth of facial hair • Deepening of the voice • changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle

  44. Long-Term Effects of Steroid Abuse • Stroke • Enlarged heart muscle & high blood pressure • Liver cancer • Kidney disease • “Roid Rage”- uncontrollable aggressive outbursts brought on by steroid use • Psychological disorders (depression, inappropriate anger)

  45. Cocaine • Stimulant powder made from the leaves of the coca plant. • Snorted, smoked, or injected • Crack cocaine- a concentrated form which is smoked • Increases the activity of a neurotransmitter in the brain responsible for feelings of pleasure (dopamine) • Results in a relatively brief high, often followed by a “crash” characterized by depression and withdrawal