WTO Workshop May 2010 Fisheries: the international instruments and institutional framework Jean-Francois Pulvenis de Séligny Director Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics and Policy Division Fisheries and Aquaculture Department FAO
I. INTRODUCTION Not homogeneous: hard law/soft law Instruments: fisheries non specific/specific Coherent, comprehensive and growing body of rules, principles and standards Marine fisheries/ inland fisheries
I. INTRODUCTION 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 1995 UNFSA 1992 UNCED: Rio Declaration + Agenda 21 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries 1993 Compliance Agreement 2002 WSSD Johannesburg Plan of Imple- -mentation • IPOAs • Seabirds 1999 • Sharks 1999 • Capacity 1999 • IUU 2001 Port State Measures: Model Scheme 2005 + 2009 Agreement • Strategies: • Status & Trends on Capture Fisheries 2003 • Status & Trends on Aquaculture 2007 • International • Guidelines: • Sea-Turtles • Ecolabelling 2009 • Deep
II. THE 1982 UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (1) 1982 LOSC – a constitution for the seas and oceans The triumph ... or the taming... of the coastal State A “zonal” approach: territory, quasi-territory, jurisdiction, res nullius From security interests to fisheries interests... the TS and its jurisdictional avatars ...
II. THE 1982 UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (2) Geometry vs. nature Range and types of species • Transboundary and straddling stocks (Art. 63) • Highly migratory species(Art.64) • Anadromous stocks (Art.66) • Catadromous species (Art.67) • vs. local species, sedentary species, “discrete” high seas fish stocks • the dynamic nature of “resources” [excluded vs. new – e.g. marine mammals (Art.65)] The actors: coastal States, flag States, port States
II. THE 1982 UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (3) 1. THE DUTY TO TAKE ACTION [consistent with Preamble] AW, IW, TS, CS ? • EEZ (conservation –Art.61; utilization –Art.62); • HS (conservation –art.117-119)
II. THE 1982 UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (4) 2. THE DUTY TO COOPERATE [consistent with Preamble] EEZ [surplus: art.62; farther ranging stocks: art.63, 64, 66, 67] • HS ( cooperation on conservation –art.118)
III. THE “GREENING” OF THE LAW OF THE SEA :1992 UNCED: RIO DECLARATION AND AGENDA 21 (1) 1. A similar “zonal approach” Chapter 17 Protection of the Oceans (...) Section C: ... high seas; Section D ... national jurisdiction; Chapter 18 Section F Water (...) H) Inland fisheries, I) Aquaculture
III. THE “GREENING” OF THE LAW OF THE SEA :1992 UNCED: RIO DECLARATION AND AGENDA 21 (2) In the wake of the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21... (1) • New concepts and approaches • The concept of “sustainable development” • The recognition of the “special situation and needs of developing countries” (Rio Declaration Principle 6) and their “differentiated responsibilities” (Rio Declaration Principle 7) • The “precautionary approach” (Rio Declaration Principle 15, Agenda 21, UNFSA) • The ecosystem-based approach to fisheries and aquaculture • At the institutional level, ex. of the UN ICP
III. THE “GREENING” OF THE LAW OF THE SEA :1992 UNCED: RIO DECLARATION AND AGENDA 21 (3) In the wake of the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21... (2) • The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation • Deadlines: • 2004: National and/or regional plans of action IUU • 2005: National and/or regional plans of action Capacity • 2010: Application of the “ecosystem approach” • 2012: Development of “representative networks” of • “marine protected areas” • 2015: Restoration of “depleted stocks”
IV. THE EMERGENCE OF THE CONCEPT OF “RESPONSIBLE” FISHERIES:THE 1995 FAO CODE OF CONDUCT FOR RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES The voluntary nature of the Code (but...) • The comprehensive nature of the Code • All fisheries (marine and inland) in addition to aquaculture (Art.9) • 19 “general principles” governing the utilization and conservation of living aquatic resources and aquatic ecosystems • From the fish in the water to the fish in the plate • Art.7 Fisheries management • Art.8 Fishing operations • Art.10 Integration of fisheries into coastal area management • Art.11 Post-harvest practices and trade • Art.12 Fisheries research
V. FILLING THE GAPS – DEVELOPING NEW INSTRUMENTS TO ADDRESS SPECIFIC SITUATIONS AND ISSUES (1) 1. Towards an improved governance of the high seas: • the 1993 FAO “Compliance Agreement” • the 1995 UNFSA • the 2009 FAO International Guidelines for the Management of Deep-Sea Fisheries in the High Seas
V. FILLING THE GAPS – DEVELOPING NEW INSTRUMENTS TO ADDRESS SPECIFIC SITUATIONS AND ISSUES (2) 2. Fighting fleets overcapacity: • the 1999 FAO International plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity
V. FILLING THE GAPS – DEVELOPING NEW INSTRUMENTS TO ADDRESS SPECIFIC SITUATIONS AND ISSUES (3) 3. Fighting IUU Fishing: • the 2001 FAO International plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing • the 2005 Rome Declaration on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing • the 2007 FAO Model Scheme on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing • the 2009 FAO Agreement on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing • towards a new instrument on flag State performance
V. FILLING THE GAPS – DEVELOPING NEW INSTRUMENTS TO ADDRESS SPECIFIC SITUATIONS AND ISSUES (4) 4. Protecting certain species and the ecosystem and ensuring the sustainability of fishing and of the fishery resources: • the 1999 FAO Plan of Action for reducing incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries • the 1999 FAO Plan of Action for the conservation and management of sharks • the [[the 2009 FAO Guidelines to reduce sea turtle mortality in fishing operations]] • the FAO Guidelines for the Ecolabelling of Fish and Fishery Products from Marine Capture Fisheries (revised in 2009)
VI. RECOGNIZING THE SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES AND NEEDS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES The texts ( UNCLOS art 62; Rio Declaration Principle 6 + Principle 7; Art. 5 CCRF; Part VII UNFSA; Part 6 PSM Agreement) The right to development and access to resources Assistance (new focus; holistic; partnership)
VII. THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK (1) 1. At the global level The UN (UNGA, ICP etc...) FAO: The Committee on Fisheries (COFI)
VII. THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK (2) FAO COMMITTEE on FISHERIES (COFI) • A unique global forum for the consideration of fisheries issues • Development of international agreements and guidelines • Guidance on the work of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
VII. THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK (3) FAO / COFI 28 - 2009 - A GLOBAL EVENT The last Session of COFI was attended by 113 Members of the Committee, 1 Associated Member, the Holy See, 7 Specialized UN Agencies and 84 intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations (62 IGOs/NGOs at COFI 27).
VII. THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK (2) 2. At the regional level (1) The “subregional or regional fisheries organizations” • RFMOs vs RFBs • RFMOs vs RFMAs
SWIOFC IOTC SIOFA
VII. THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK (3) 2. At the regional level (2) RFMOs an inventory of the issues to address (1) • Establishment: RFMO or RFMA or else? • Establishment: who? • Participation: who? • Members • Cooperating Non-contracting Parties • Observers (States & NGOs) • The special case of the “fishing entities” • Area and scope of competence • Subsidiary organs • Scientific advisory committee • Compliance committee • Administrative and financial matters committee • Capacity-building committee?
VII. THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK (4) 2. At the regional level (3) RFMOs an inventory of the issues to address (2) • The need of efficient procedures • Decision-making • Compliance: monitoring and sanctions • Settlement of disputes • Capacity-building? • Periodic performance review • Cooperation/network with other relevant RFMO/As and RFBs