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Relative Contributions and Impacts of Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries. James H. Tidwell, Ph.D. Kentucky State University And Geoff Allan, Ph.D. New South Wales Fisheries. Tidwell’s Theory of Fisheries Relativity. Fish is man’s most important source of animal protein (FAO 2000).

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Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Relative Contributions and Impacts of Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries

James H. Tidwell, Ph.D.

Kentucky State University

And

Geoff Allan, Ph.D.

New South Wales Fisheries



Fish is man s most important source of animal protein fao 2000
Fish is man’s most important source of animal protein (FAO 2000)

  • Fish makes the greatest contribution where needed most.

    Fish as % animal protein

    North America 10%

    Africa 17%

    Asia 26%

    China 22%


The demand for fish is increasing
The Demand for Fish 2000) is Increasing


Why? 2000)

  • Not really due to increased rates of consumption

  • (15-16 kg/person).

  • Primarily due to population growth.

    1.5 MMT additional product each year!

World Population Increase


Where does it come from only two sources capture or culture
Where does it come from? 2000)Only Two Sources-Capture or Culture

  • Historically – the oceans

  • About 80% of our foodfish supply comes from ocean capture fisheries.

  • If we needed more – we just fished harder – longer – or further away.


Today s reality
Today’s Reality 2000)

The ocean’s bounty is NOT limitless.

50% of ocean fisheries fully exploited.

70% in need of urgent management. (FAO 1999).


Invest in bigger faster boats with longer ranges

What We Have Done? 2000)

Invest in bigger, faster boats with longer ranges

  • Invest in new technologies to locate and aggregate the fish

  • Mace (1997) estimated that the “catching capacity” of the fleet has increased 4-8 X faster than actual catch rates.

  • Increased outlays and decreasing returns create a financial inertia against reducing fishing pressures.


Why? 2000)

  • Consumer demand drives the system

  • Not only how much – but what species are targeted


Environmental costs of capture fisheries
Environmental Costs of Capture Fisheries 2000)

  • Major Issue – By-Catch

  • Longline fisheries -billfishes – pressures on shark species – slow reproduction and recovery rates.

  • Trawling technologies for ground fish like flounder-also catch large numbers of skates and rays.

Shrimp trawls may kill 10 kg of juvenile finfish for each kg of shrimp


By catch
By-Catch 2000)

  • Driven by consumer demand

  • Other high profile examples

    • Shrimp and Sea turtles

  • Tuna and shrimp are #1 and #2 in popularity

  • Tuna and Dolphins


Current situation
Current Situation 2000)

  • The ocean can supply only 2/3 of current demand. Significant increases from capture appear biologically unsustainable.

  • Population growth continues. Demands for fish increases over 1 million tons per year.

  • Where will almost all future supply increases come from?


A q uaculture is the fastest growing food production activity in the world
A 2000)quaculture is the fastest growing food production activity in the world.



Growth of aquaculture
Growth of Aquaculture 2000)

  • With a growth rate of 11% per year – Aquaculture is on a pace to surpass beef production by 2010.

Not only how much but where.

  • Aquaculture is growing 6X faster in developing countries than in developed countries

While 80% of beef production is in industrialized nations


Aquaculture Production: 2000)

Developed vs Developing countries

91% omnivores or filter feeders


Fao states that
FAO States that: 2000)

  • “As an inexpensive source of highly nutritious animal protein, aquaculture has become an important factor for improving food security, raising nutritional standards, and alleviating poverty, particularly in the world’s poorest countries.”


Food security
Food Security 2000)

  • Production already increased 400% between 1984 and 1998.

  • FAO 2001 predicts significant increases in small-scale aquaculture production in Africa.


There are not too few fish there are too many people
There are not too few fish - there are too many people 2000)

If terrestrialagriculture had not developed, we could never support the current human population.

A similar juncture has been reached or passed in fish supplies.


Aquaculture too has its costs
Aquaculture Too Has Its Costs 2000)

  • The very rapid growth of aquaculture has led, in some cases, to environmental impacts and conflicts over limited resources.

  • You cannot produce 40 Billion kg of anything without leaving an “environmental footprint”.

  • However, let us base our analyses on facts and fairly compare these impacts to other sources.


Painting with a broad brush. Don’t say aquaculture when discussing one species!!

The Down Side ofFish Farming

“Aquaculture Industry a failure”, study claims


Shrimp and salmon aquaculture
Shrimp and Salmon = Aquaculture discussing one species!!

/

9%

6%


Environmental costs of aquaculture
Environmental Costs of Aquaculture discussing one species!!

  • Mangrove Destruction

  • Fact: As much as 50-60% of the historic resource has been lost.

  • The World Wildlife Fund reported < 5% of mangrove losses due to shrimp farms. Most to urbanization, fuel, pulp…


Issue fish meal in aquaculture diets
Issue: Fish Meal in Aquaculture Diets discussing one species!!

  • Naylor et al (2000) reported that aquaculture is “a contributing factor to the collapse of fish stocks worldwide”.

  • “ever increasing amounts of small pelagic fish would be caught for use in aquaculture feeds”


An analysis of these data indicates no statistical relationship between aquaculture production and pelagic fish landings or fish meal production (P values > 0.80)

World Aquaculture

Production

35

30

25

World Landings

of Pelagic Fish

20

Million Metric Tons

15

el nino

10

World Fishmeal

Production

5

0

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999



Fish Meal Use vs. Total Production in U.S. Catfish this fixed amount is used.

6.9X Return


>4X Return


Ok what if we get that same fish from the wild
OK- What if we get that same fish from the wild?? consumers” of fish.

100%

30-35%


Kg of forage fish required to produce 1 kg of salmon or shrimp
Kg of Forage Fish Required to Produce 1 Kg of Salmon or Shrimp

KG

By-Catch + Wastes

Trophic Conversion


Nutrition research
Nutrition Research Shrimp

  • Just as other livestock industries have reduced fish meal inclusion – so will aquaculture – as nutritional requirements of culture species are identified.

Poultry 2 species

Aquaculture 167 species




These have their own environmental costs


Why is aquaculture more efficient
Why is Aquaculture More Efficient? flesh with more metabolic efficiency – They are just subsidized by a different ecosystem – freshwater or terrestrial.

  • Less waste – In capture fisheries as much as 40% of the total catch may be wasted or discarded (Howgate 1997).

  • In aquaculture there is a shorter chain, with more control , from production to harvest to processing and distribution.


Today s reality1
Today’s Reality flesh with more metabolic efficiency – They are just subsidized by a different ecosystem – freshwater or terrestrial.

  • We need Capture Fisheries AND Aquaculture working together to meet human demand.

Soon they must each supply half of the worlds fish supply.


Percentage of total world seafood supplied by aquaculture
Percentage of Total World Seafood Supplied by Aquaculture flesh with more metabolic efficiency – They are just subsidized by a different ecosystem – freshwater or terrestrial.

%




It could actually increase pressures on marine stocks to supply the shortfall.


Fao 2001
FAO (2001): high quality protein is needed most.

  • “ Irrespective of whether inaccurate information is generated deliberately to promote a specific cause, or inadvertently through ignorance, it can have a major impact on public opinion and policy making that may not be in the best interest of either sustainable use of fisheries resources or the conservation of aquatic systems.”


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