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Sleep & Dreaming. Why do we sleep? Restorative vs Adaptive Hypotheses. effects of sleep deprivation. TED talks: why we sleep. circadian rhythms. Suprachiasmatic nucleus . Circadian Rhythms and the…. Entrained by zeitgebers - SCN controls timing of sleep, not sleep itself.

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Sleep & Dreaming

Why do we sleep?

Restorative vs Adaptive Hypotheses

effects of sleep deprivation

TED talks: why we sleep

circadian rhythms

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Circadian Rhythms and the…

Entrained by zeitgebers - SCN controls timing of sleep, not sleep itself

Retinal ganglion cells containing melanosporin respond to light

Retinohypothalmic pathway

Also regulated by on-off genes

In the SCN




Ultradian Rhythms





sleepingwalking, nightterrors, bedwetting

REM and Dreaming

The purpose of REM sleep

1. perchance to dream

2. promote neural development during childhood

3. memory consolidation

Neuronal replay in hippocampus is highest during

non-REM sleep

Non-REM sleep

The purpose of slow wave sleep

1. rest and restoration of the body

2. cool down the brain

3. restore cognitive function, prefrontal cortex recovery

During REM, memory traces are transferred to cortex

This process may take 4-7 days to become permanent

sleep & memory

What puts us to sleep

Key Concepts to know

The NT adenosine inhibits arousal in the basal forebrain

Adenosine warms cells in the preoptic area which helps

to induce sleep

Neurons in the ventrolateralpreoptic nucleus inhibit

activitity of several structures in the pons

tuberomammilary nucleus, PPT/LDT, LC,

raphe nucleus

Info from pons goes to the magnocellular n. (in the

Medulla) to induce atonia

What wakes us up

Key Concepts to know

Pathway 1: PPT/LDT stimulates structures in the pons

These structures then send info to the cortex

This pathway also shifts EEG to the arousal state

Pathway 2: Pons structures (Locus coeruleus, raphe n.,

tuberomammilary n., ) and basal forebrain stimulate the

cortex so it can better process input from the thalamus.

The lateral hypothalamus stimulates the basal forebrain

and pons structures. The LH does this by releasing the

peptide orexin.