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Warm-up 4 (9-30). The Federalist Papers were written to encourage a. The adoption of the Bill of Rights. b. The ratification of the Constitution. c. Delegates in Philadelphia to write a new constitution. d. States to send delegates to the Philadelphia Convention. .

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warm up 4 9 30
Warm-up 4 (9-30)

The Federalist Papers were written to encourage

a. The adoption of the Bill of Rights.

b. The ratification of the Constitution.

c. Delegates in Philadelphia to write a new constitution.

d. States to send delegates to the Philadelphia Convention.

basis for new government
Basis for new government
  • Federalism: sharing of power between federal and state governments
  • Constitution would be supreme law of the land
  • Republic: governed by representation of people’s will
  • Limited government: only had powers granted to it by the Constitution
  • Three branches with ability to check each other
federalists vs anti federalists
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
  • Debate between Federalists like Alexander Hamilton and James Madison “Father of Constitution” who supported ratification, strong central government, loose interpretation of Constitution (implied powers)
  • Antifederalists like Jefferson who supported strong states’ rights, strict interpretation (Republicans)
  • Important to many was protection of people against abuse by government
  • Several states refused to ratify until a Bill of Rights was included
federalist papers
Federalist Papers
  • Essays written by Hamilton, Madison, & John Jay to help persuade New York to ratify the Constitution
  • Eased the fear of one faction becoming too powerful in government
  • Faction: group of people bound by a common belief/cause (Federalists, Antifederalists) led to political parties (Republican and Federalist)
  • Federalist view won out, but Antifederalists secured a Bill of Rights
  • Constitution was ratified by 9 of 13 states on June 21, 1788, went into effect in 1789
the debate
The Debate

Federalists

Anti-Federalists

  • If men were angels, no government would be necessary… You must first enable the government to control the governed..” - James Madison, Federalist Papers “Number 51”
  • “The prosperity of America depend[s] on the Union. To preserve and perpetuate [maintain] it was the great object of the. . . . plan which the convention has advised [the people] to adopt. . . . “- Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Papers “Number 45”
  • “I will now tell you what I do no not like. First, [there is no] bill of rights. . . A bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth. . . .” - Thomas Jefferson, December 20, 1787
  • “This Constitution is said to have beautiful features; but when I come to examine these features, Sir, they appear to me horribly frightful…Your President may easily become King…” - Patrick Henry, “Shall Liberty or Empire be sought”
  • “Without a Bill of Rights, you will exhibit the most absurd thing to mankind that ever the world saw a government - Patrick Henry
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • Sponsored by James Madison in 1789, went into effect 1791
  • First 10 amendments to Constitution
  • Purpose: to protect civil liberties
george washington
George Washington
  • Was unanimously elected as first president by delegates and served in both 1789 and 1792
  • John Adams is elected as the 1st Vice President
  • Appointed several trusted men to serve in his cabinet (heads of departments who serve as the president’s key advisors): Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State), Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury), Henry Knox (Secretary of War).
  • Washington would go on to set many presidential precedents.
hamilton s economic plan
Hamilton’s Economic Plan
  • Take on state debts incurred from war
  • To raise revenue wanted to tax whiskey
  • Argued this would also demonstrate power of the federal government
  • Supported tariffs (taxes on imports) to raise money and protect U.S. businesses from foreign competition
  • Proposed establishing a national bank (implied power)
opponents
Opponents
  • Thomas Jefferson argued the federal government was not given power to open national bank (strict interpretation)
  • Southerners were against tariffs because it would raise prices and lessen competition
  • They also feared other countries would respond with tariffs of their own
  • Many feared the government intended to support the wealthy few
whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
  • Tax on whiskey very unpopular in Penn, MD, VA, and NC with farmers who earned a living producing whiskey
  • Protest resulted in Whiskey Rebellion when farmers in Penn refused to pay the tax and resorted to violence
  • Washington showed the power of the federal government by sending in troops to halt the armed protest
proclamation of neutrality
Proclamation of Neutrality
  • Great Britain and France were once again at war
  • Washington recognized the U.S. could not afford to take sides
  • As a result, the United States’ ability to trade on the high seas was affected
political parties
Political Parties
  • Played major role in 1796 presidential election
  • John Adams (Federalist) received most votes and was elected 2nd president
  • According to Constitution, individual receiving second highest votes became vice president
  • Thomas Jefferson won, and had very different views from Adams
adams administration
Adams Administration
  • XYZ Affair: unsuccessful attempt to improve U.S./French relations, caused U.S. to build up its military
  • Alien Act: allowed government to arrest, detain, or remove foreigners deemed untrustworthy
  • Sedition Act: severely limited free speech
jeffersonian republicans
Jeffersonian Republicans
  • Jefferson and Madison saw the alien and sedition acts as abuses of power
  • Adopted resolution doctrine of nullification which stated that states can nullify a national law that they believe violates the Constitution
  • States’ rights became highly debated leading up to the Civil War
election of 1800
Election of 1800
  • Adams v. Jefferson/Federalists v. Republicans
  • Republicans accused Federalist Adams of wanting to be a king
  • Federalists proclaimed Jefferson of being an anarchist (against any government)
  • Electoral college voted on Jefferson and Aaron Burr (both Republican) ending in a tie
  • House of Rep. had to decide
  • Hamilton (a Federalist who disagreed with Jefferson’s politics) supported Jefferson making him the 3rd president (only because he hated Burr)
  • Burr never forgave Hamilton and ended up shooting and killing him in a duel