10 Alternative Extrication Techniques
Knowledge Objectives (1 of 3) • Describe tunneling and when to use it. • Describe how to remove a front seat and provide an example of when this should be performed. • Describe the cross ram technique and provide an example of when this should be performed. • Describe how to stabilize an impaled object.
Knowledge Objectives (2 of 3) • Describe how to remove a roof using an air chisel. • Describe how to remove a roof using a reciprocating saw. • Describe how to remove a roof from a vehicle resting on its side.
Knowledge Objectives (3 of 3) • Describe how to remove a door on the hinge side using an air chisel. • Describe how to perform a side removal on a vehicle that is upside down or resting on its roof. • Describe how to relocate a pedal.
Introduction • Well–rounded technical rescuers have a diverse repertoire of alternative techniques that they can apply to any incident. • It is best to be prepared with as many options as possible.
Tunneling (1 of 3) • Tunneling is the process of gaining entry through the rear trunk area. • Commonly performed on a vehicle resting on its roof
Tunneling (2 of 3) • This technique can be accomplished quickly and enable in–line removal of the victim. • Start by stabilizing the scene and the vehicle. • Tools: • Air chisel • Electric-powered reciprocating saw • Large bolt cutters • Hydraulic spreader and cutter
Tunneling (3 of 3) • When the vehicle is stabilized, remove the trunk. • Expose and cut the latching mechanism to release the trunk cover. • Tools depend on: • Type of vehicle • Body design • Presentation of vehicle
Seat Removal (1 of 2) • Once the rescuer is inside the vehicle, he/she may find different entrapment scenarios. • Two rescuers should be in the passenger compartment. • One rescuer will perform patient disentanglement. • Other rescuer will perform patient care. • Evaluate what is impinging the victim.
Seat Removal (2 of 2) • Front seat removal • Various types of frames and advanced designs • Seats are attached to the floorboards in at least four places. • Back seat hinges are the best areas of access. • Material covering the seats may have to be removed.
Impingement and Penetrating Objects (1 of 4) • Cross ram technique • Used when the impingement of metal on the victim requires movement that cannot be completed with a hydraulic spreader. • Hydraulic ram can be used in tight spaces.
Impingement and Penetrating Objects (2 of 4) • A crushed roof with impingement on the victim needs to be raised off the victim before any posts or sections are cut. • Have cribbing, wedges, and shims available.
Impingement and Penetrating Objects (3 of 4) • Be aware of the potential for tool slippage. • Can be prevented by recognizing the signs and repositioning the tool • Tools needed include: • Large hydraulic ram • Assorted cribbing sections • Backboard
Impingement and Penetrating Objects (4 of 4) • Penetrating objects • Sources may be inside or outside the vehicle. • Stabilize the object at the entry and exit points. • Tools needed include: • Metal–cutting circular saw • Pneumatic cutoff tool • Basic apparatus toolbox
Roof Removal (1 of 6) • When cutting a roof, examine for any tensioning or torsion deformities. • This will help you find the best angle for cutting. • Remove plastic molding on posts and roof rail. • Keep half of the tip of the chisel blade showing through the entire cut.
Roof Removal (2 of 6) • When a post is under tension or has a torsional bend to it, it is under a lot of pressure. • Always cut away from the bend or torsion. • Cut at the base of the post or at the roof line area. • Watch the reaction of the post through the entire cut.
Roof Removal (3 of 6) • Additional tips • When cutting through a large or wide post, a pie cut or inspection cut will have to be made. • When using a reciprocating saw, cut at a semi–downward angle. • If you suspect a reinforcement bar, cut a lower section. • Use hard protection on the victim and rescuer in the vehicle.
Roof Removal (4 of 6) • Roof removal using the air chisel • Requires continual training • Multiple blades come with most tool kits. • Success is based on maintaining control.
Roof Removal (5 of 6) • Roof removal using the reciprocating saw • Fast and efficient • A power output of 11–15 amps will cut through a wide range of steels. • Use a 9-inch bi-metal cutting blade with a TPI rating of 9–14. • Speed setting should be at highest setting.
Roof Removal (6 of 6) • Rapid roof removal: vehicle on its side • Involves a reciprocating saw • Two reciprocating saws can increase speed. • As the bottom line is cut midway through the roof, another rescuer can start cutting the top line. • An advantage is that a section of the roof is actually removed.
Door Removal Hinge Side • Using an air chisel to cut through door hinges can be a challenging task. • With training, it is an effective technique that is easily mastered.
Side Removal: Vehicle Upside Down or Resting on Its Roof • Gaining entry through the side of a vehicle that is resting on its roof can require: • Basic procedure • Involved process with multiple steps
Pedal Displacement and Removal (1 of 3) • Acceleration and brake pedals can trap and entangle occupant’s feet. • Properly supporting a foot that is trapped must be accomplished before trying to remove the pedal. • The foot may be fractured or dislocated.
Pedal Displacement and Removal (2 of 3) • The pedal arm can be cut and/or relocated using: • Hydraulic cutter, reciprocating saw, air chisel or pneumatic cutoff tool • Come along and chain • Webbing or rope
Pedal Displacement and Removal (3 of 3) • Variables include: • Type of entrapment • Position of foot • Type of injury and condition of patient • Involvement of air bags or SRS components • Other interventions to release the occupant • Model of pedal
Summary (1 of 5) • Tunneling is the process of gaining entry through the rear trunk area of a vehicle. It is most commonly performed for a vehicle that is resting on its roof. • There are multiple variations of the types of seat frames. • Seats are attached to the floorboards of the vehicle in four or more places.
Summary (2 of 5) • The material covering the seats may have to be removed. • The cross ram technique is used when the impingement of metal on the victim requires a unique mechanism of movement. • The hydraulic ram has the advantage over a hydraulic spreader because it can be used in tight spaces.
Summary (3 of 5) • When an object impales a vehicle occupant, the main objective is to stabilize the penetrating object at the entry point and the exit point. • The pneumatic air chisel is a powerful tool with multiple blades. The two most widely used blades are the panel cutter, or T-blade, and the flat/curved blade.
Summary (4 of 5) • A reciprocating saw is an excellent tool to use for removing a vehicle’s roof. • The technique of removing a door on the hinge side can be completed using a combination of a hydraulic spreader and hydraulic cutter, or it can be accomplished utilizing an air chisel.
Summary (5 of 5) • Gaining entry through the side of a vehicle that has rolled over and is resting on its roof can require either a very basic procedure or a very involved process requiring multiple steps. • Acceleration and brake pedals are notorious for trapping or entangling occupants’ foot extremities.