What is HIV & AIDS? • HIV- Human Immunodeficiency virus • A virus that attacks the immune system. • Once it enters the body it destroys the white blood cells that fight off disease. • AIDS- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome • A disease in which the immune system is weakened • AIDS has become one of the deadliest diseases in human history.
Myths & Facts • A person with HIV or AIDS looks sick? • People infected with HIV often don’t look or feel sick. You can even have HIV and not know! • You can get HIV from eating after an infected person or sharing their utensils? • It is NOT transmitted through food or eating utensils. • You CAN get it from… infected blood, semen, vaginal fluid or a mother’s breast milk.
HIV • Can not live outside the human body • Exposure to air at room temperature kills the virus • Virus has been found in sweat, tears & saliva but the amount is too small to be considered dangerous • How is it spread? • During sexual intercourse • By sharing needles • From mother to baby
The Immune system • Attacks the immune system by destroying lymphocytes • T Cells and B Cells • How HIV attacks the body’s cells: • HIV attaches to the cell surface • Virus core enters cell and goes to nucleus • Virus makes a copy of its genetic material • New virus assembles at cell surface • New virus breaks away from host cell
STAGES Asymptomatic Stage Middle Stage • Last for 10 years or more • Confided to lymph nodes • No outward signs of infection • Occurs in 40-70% of patients • Fever, headache, sore throat, rash, diarrhea, & enlarged lymph nodes
STAGES Symptomatic Stage AIDS Stage (Opportunistic Infections) • Helper T cells fall tremendously (200-400 per milliliter of blood • Bad flu like symptoms • Hardly an appetite, weight loss & skin rash • T helper cells drop under 200 per milliliter of blood • Immune system is so weak they can potentially die from any illness they get, even a common cold!
In the United States Facts • More than 18,000 people with AIDS still die each year in the US. • An estimated 56,300 Americans becoming infected with HIV each year. • CDC estimates that more than one million people are living with HIV in the United States. • One in five (21%) of those people living with HIV is unaware of their infection.
Protect yourself • Practice Abstinence • Do not share needles • Avoid situations where drugs and alcohol are being used • Use refusal skills well
TESTS EIA/ELISA Test Western Blot Test • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or enzyme immunoassay • A test that screens for HIV antibodies in the blood • 2 tests, if both positive Western blot test is done • 98% accurate • Detects HIV antibodies and confirms EIA test • Very expensive • 98% accurate
TESTS RNA CD4 Run when a Western blot test comes back positive A viral load test that shows how many copies of the virus are circulating in the blood Run when a Western blot test comes back positive Looks at the number of white blood cells in a sample of blood.
BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS • Allows the person to begin treatment to slow the progress of the virus • Allows the person to avoid behaviors that could spread HIV to others • Could give a person peace of mind if the results end up being negative
Treating HIV/AIDS • Drugs that slow down the growth of HIV • HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) is a combination of drugs to slow the growth. • 2006 the FDA approved a once-daily, single-pill tx • NO CURE!! • Nothing can stop it!
Treating HIV/AIDS CDC and other government agencies continue to work on a variety of treatment-related activities, including: HIV/AIDS clinical research and drug trials vaccine research development of treatment guidelines and best practices creating and implementing treatment-related prevention strategies that can help stop new infections.
GROOVIN’ TO THE BEAT • Write a poem or rap! • Have facts about how HIV is transmitted and not transmitted • Talk about how abstinence is the only way to avoid HIV/AIDS • Someone or everyone in your group must present this to the class! • CREATIVITY!