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The Basics of HIV/AIDS. Prepared by the HIV/AIDS/TB Program. What is HIV?. It stands for H uman I mmuno-deficiency V irus The virus attacks specific immune cells called CD4+ T-cells The virus high-jacks the host cell to produce more of itself, thus killing the host cell

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the basics of hiv aids

The Basics of HIV/AIDS

Prepared by the

HIV/AIDS/TB Program

what is hiv
What is HIV?
  • It stands for Human Immuno-deficiency Virus
  • The virus attacks specific immune cells called CD4+ T-cells
  • The virus high-jacks the host cell to produce more of itself, thus killing the host cell
  • The genetic material of the virus is integrated into the host cell DNA
what is aids
What is AIDS?
  • It stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
  • It is characterized by a distinct weakening of the immune system
  • AIDS is diagnosed when CD4+ T-cells are ≤ 200 cells per μL or ≤ 14%, or when an opportunistic infection (i.e. Tuberculosis) is diagnosed
slide4

Source: http://www.nwabr.org/education/pdfs/hiv_lifecycle.jpg

hiv facts
HIV Facts
  • Once infected with HIV, the virus never goes away
  • There is no cure for HIV yet, but medication can slow the progression of the disease
  • People do not die of HIV, they generally die from opportunistic infections because of their crippled immune system
disease progression
Disease Progression

Source: www.journaids.org

how is hiv transmitted

Blood Serum

1,000,000

125,000

Semen

Vaginal Fluid

AmnioticFluid

32,000

Saliva

1

7,000

4,000

1,000

Copies of HIV Particles in 1 mL of these body fluids

How is HIV Transmitted?
  • Portals of Entry
  • Open wounds
  • Breaks in skin
  • Needle stick
  • Mucous membranes
most common modes of transmission
Most Common Modes of Transmission
  • Sexual Contact
    • Male-to-male (MSM)
    • Heterosexual
  • Blood Exposure
    • Injecting drug use (IDU)
    • Occupational exposure
    • Organ transplant
    • Blood/blood products transfusion
  • Perinatal
    • Before or during birth
    • Breastfeeding
how hiv is not transmitted
How HIV is NOT Transmitted
  • Hugging
  • Shaking hands
  • Sharing eating utensils
  • Touching toilet seats
  • Bug bites
what you can do to reduce your risk
What you can do to reduce your risk
  • Abstinence
  • Use barriers, such as condoms and dental dams
  • Limit the number of sexual partners
  • Do not share needles used by others, such as for drug use, tattooing, or piercing
  • Avoid exposure to blood products
hiv testing
HIV Testing
  • Screening tests
    • Orasure: detects HIV antibodies in oral fluid
    • Rapid test: detects HIV antibodies in blood from finger prick
  • Confirmatory tests
    • IFA: highly accurate detection of HIV antibodies from venous blood
    • Western blot: very specific detection of HIV antibodies from venous blood
window period
Window Period

Window Period

100%

90%

Antibodies Detected

Infection Occurs

hiv testing in nd
HIV Testing in ND
  • Confidential
  • Free to at-risk individuals
  • Rapid test results available within 20 minutes
  • OraSure results available within one week
  • Testing sites located throughout the state
  • List of testing sites at www.ndhealth.gov/hiv or 1.800.70.NDHIV
nd hiv testing laws
ND HIV Testing Laws
  • Must have informed consent before testing, except for . . .
    • Mandatory testing of prison/jail inmates if incarcerated for more than 15 days, and
    • Mandatory testing of defendants charged with a sex offense
  • Children age 14 or older may be tested without parental consent
worldwide hiv aids statistics
Worldwide HIV/AIDS Statistics
  • 33 million people living with HIV by the end of 2007
  • 2.7 million people newly infected with HIV during 2007
  • 2 million people died of AIDS during 2007
  • 15 million orphans due to AIDS by the end of 2007
u s hiv aids statistics
U.S. HIV/AIDS Statistics
  • By the end of 2006, about 1 million people had been diagnosed with AIDS in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
  • By the end of 2006, 448,871 of these cases were still living, and 565,927of them had died.
  • The CDC estimates that 56,300 people were newly infected with HIV during 2006.
north dakota hiv aids statistics
North Dakota HIV/AIDS Statistics

As of December 31, 2008

  • 441 Cumulative cases since 1984
  • 37% had AIDS at HIV diagnosis
  • 84% are male
  • 77% are white, 11% are black, and 10% are American Indian
  • 51% are men who have sex with men (MSM), 18% had heterosexual relations, and 13% used injectable drugs (IDU)