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The Basics of HIV/AIDS. Prepared by the HIV/AIDS/TB Program. What is HIV?. It stands for H uman I mmuno-deficiency V irus The virus attacks specific immune cells called CD4+ T-cells The virus high-jacks the host cell to produce more of itself, thus killing the host cell

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the basics of hiv aids

The Basics of HIV/AIDS

Prepared by the


what is hiv
What is HIV?
  • It stands for Human Immuno-deficiency Virus
  • The virus attacks specific immune cells called CD4+ T-cells
  • The virus high-jacks the host cell to produce more of itself, thus killing the host cell
  • The genetic material of the virus is integrated into the host cell DNA
what is aids
What is AIDS?
  • It stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
  • It is characterized by a distinct weakening of the immune system
  • AIDS is diagnosed when CD4+ T-cells are ≤ 200 cells per μL or ≤ 14%, or when an opportunistic infection (i.e. Tuberculosis) is diagnosed


hiv facts
HIV Facts
  • Once infected with HIV, the virus never goes away
  • There is no cure for HIV yet, but medication can slow the progression of the disease
  • People do not die of HIV, they generally die from opportunistic infections because of their crippled immune system
disease progression
Disease Progression


how is hiv transmitted

Blood Serum




Vaginal Fluid








Copies of HIV Particles in 1 mL of these body fluids

How is HIV Transmitted?
  • Portals of Entry
  • Open wounds
  • Breaks in skin
  • Needle stick
  • Mucous membranes
most common modes of transmission
Most Common Modes of Transmission
  • Sexual Contact
    • Male-to-male (MSM)
    • Heterosexual
  • Blood Exposure
    • Injecting drug use (IDU)
    • Occupational exposure
    • Organ transplant
    • Blood/blood products transfusion
  • Perinatal
    • Before or during birth
    • Breastfeeding
how hiv is not transmitted
How HIV is NOT Transmitted
  • Hugging
  • Shaking hands
  • Sharing eating utensils
  • Touching toilet seats
  • Bug bites
what you can do to reduce your risk
What you can do to reduce your risk
  • Abstinence
  • Use barriers, such as condoms and dental dams
  • Limit the number of sexual partners
  • Do not share needles used by others, such as for drug use, tattooing, or piercing
  • Avoid exposure to blood products
hiv testing
HIV Testing
  • Screening tests
    • Orasure: detects HIV antibodies in oral fluid
    • Rapid test: detects HIV antibodies in blood from finger prick
  • Confirmatory tests
    • IFA: highly accurate detection of HIV antibodies from venous blood
    • Western blot: very specific detection of HIV antibodies from venous blood
window period
Window Period

Window Period



Antibodies Detected

Infection Occurs

hiv testing in nd
HIV Testing in ND
  • Confidential
  • Free to at-risk individuals
  • Rapid test results available within 20 minutes
  • OraSure results available within one week
  • Testing sites located throughout the state
  • List of testing sites at or 1.800.70.NDHIV
nd hiv testing laws
ND HIV Testing Laws
  • Must have informed consent before testing, except for . . .
    • Mandatory testing of prison/jail inmates if incarcerated for more than 15 days, and
    • Mandatory testing of defendants charged with a sex offense
  • Children age 14 or older may be tested without parental consent
worldwide hiv aids statistics
Worldwide HIV/AIDS Statistics
  • 33 million people living with HIV by the end of 2007
  • 2.7 million people newly infected with HIV during 2007
  • 2 million people died of AIDS during 2007
  • 15 million orphans due to AIDS by the end of 2007
u s hiv aids statistics
U.S. HIV/AIDS Statistics
  • By the end of 2006, about 1 million people had been diagnosed with AIDS in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
  • By the end of 2006, 448,871 of these cases were still living, and 565,927of them had died.
  • The CDC estimates that 56,300 people were newly infected with HIV during 2006.
north dakota hiv aids statistics
North Dakota HIV/AIDS Statistics

As of December 31, 2008

  • 441 Cumulative cases since 1984
  • 37% had AIDS at HIV diagnosis
  • 84% are male
  • 77% are white, 11% are black, and 10% are American Indian
  • 51% are men who have sex with men (MSM), 18% had heterosexual relations, and 13% used injectable drugs (IDU)