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Europe During 1400s &1500s . Janelle Oliver, Bailey Hoback & Gabriella Andino. What was the Renaissance? . Georgio Vasari described it as a “Rebirth ” Re-emergence of Greek and Roman literature, art, philosophy, and political and historical thought Started in Italy

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europe during 1400s 1500s

EuropeDuring 1400s &1500s

Janelle Oliver, Bailey Hoback & Gabriella Andino

what was the renaissance
What was the Renaissance?
  • Georgio Vasari described it as a “Rebirth ”
    • Re-emergence of Greek and Roman literature, art, philosophy, and political and historical thought
  • Started in Italy
    • Focused on secular concerns
    • Individualism
  • Later spread to Northern Europe
    • Dealt with religious concerns
slide3

Class & Political Struggles

  • Catholic Church had heavy influence in Italy
  • Old nobility was starting to lose their control over Italy
  • New wealthy merchant families started to rise because of Mediterranean trade

Old Nobility v. New Wealthy Families

  • Popolo
    • Wanted their own share of the wealth and political power
slide4

Italian v. Northern Renaissance

  • Italian
    • Was center of Europe’s economic, political and cultural life
    • Italy was divided up into different urbanized city-states
      • The heart of Renaissance was in Florence
    • Tension and many wars were fought between the major cities
  • Northern
    • Strictly focused on religion
      • Still trying to seek new ways to deepen their Christian beliefs
slide6

Humanism

  • Is a program of study, including rhetoric and literature based on what students in the classical world would have studied
  • Francesco Petrarch
    • Father of Humanism
  • To write in the Ciceronian style became the goal of Petrarch and humanists who followed him
    • Inspired “civic humanists”
  • Many humanist emphasized individualism and questioned some biblical text
    • This upset the North
slide7

Who Achieved the Renaissance?

  • Renaissance really only applied to the wealthy
    • Could afford classical literature and study it
  • Popolo wanted to be part of the Renaissance but were more preoccupied with their lives
  • Most of the poor were illiterate
    • Spent most of their time struggling for work or lived on rural farms
  • Women
    • Some wealthy women picked up some humanism skills
      • Leonardo Bruni created an education program for women
      • Christine de Pisan wrote “The City of Ladies”
  • Baroque Movement
slide8

Beginning the Reformation

  • Through translation, the Catholic Church had distorted and complicated theological text
    • Practices of nepotism, absenteeism, immoral behavior of the papacy and the selling of indulgences were quite common
  • However, many opposed the corruption of the church
    • Desideratum Erasmus’s “Praise of Folly” which used satire as a means of criticizing the church
    • Sir Tomas More’s “Utopia” which was critical of certain practices of the church
    • Most important was Martin Luther’s “95 Thesis”
slide9

The Protestant Reformation

  • Martin Luther wanted the catholic church to change and had no intensions of starting a new religion
    • Pope Leo X did not take Luther seriously and ignored him
  • Lutheranism started heavily influencing the Germanic states
    • Edict of Worms
  • Other reformers sprung up after Luther
    • John Calvin’s “Institutes of the Christian Religion”starting Calvinism
    • King Henry VIII started the Anglican Church
    • Ulrich Zwingli started Zwingli
slide10

Society’s Response

  • Germanic states were caught in the middle
    • Peace of Augsburg by Charles V
  • Reformation abolished corrupt practices
  • Implements of humanist methods in Protestant secondary schools and universities
    • Allowing every class, and gender to attend
  • Schools taught in Greek and Latin with religious instruction
  • Women were still seen as subservient to men
    • Gradually lost their rights
slide11

Counter Reformation

  • Pope Paul II was dedicated in reforming the Church
  • Index of Prohibited Books
  • Papal Inquisition to keep out Protestantism
  • Council of Trent
    • Was dominated by the papacy and enhanced its power
    • Took steps to address some of the issues that sparked the reformation
  • Ignatius Loyola
    • Founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
    • Working as Catholic missionaries in heavy Protestant areas
slide12

Religious Wars

  • Hapsburg-Valois War
    • France was trying to keep the control of the Holy Roman Empire from controlling all of Germany
      • While Charles IV was occupied with France, Lutheranism spread fast throughout the empire
    • France was also fighting Spain over territories in Italy
    • Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
  • Spain’s Catholic Crusade
    • Was a conflict between Spain and the Turks allowing a secure region for Christian merchants
    • Battle of Lepanto was the naval battle in which Spain defeated the Turks off the coast of Greece and won the war
slide13

Religious Wars

  • The Dutch Revolt
    • William I started a war against the Spanish inquisition
      • They were beaten by Spain, and some parts of the Provinces became under the Spanish control
  • Spain and England
    • Mary Tudor was wife of Philip I of the Holy Roman Empire and tried to convert England to traditional Catholic beliefs
    • Elizabeth I
      • After the Dutch Revolt, she tried to aid the Netherlands to gain independence from the Spanish
    • Spanish Armada
slide14

French Civil War

  • This conflict started after the death of Henry II and the struggle within the family for who would get the crown
  • A Catholic Valois and Huguenot couple were married, intending to reconcile the Catholic v. Huguenot differences, however, rioting and violence occurred and the couple were killed in their sleep before the wedding
  • War of Three Kings which three different Henrys fought over the French throne
  • Henry IV, a Huguenot, won and ruled like Elizabeth I in the way that he tried to find solutions for problems, rather than idolize himself
    • Edict of Nantes
slide15

Thirty Year’s War

  • The Peace of Augsburgworked for a short period of time, however, factionalism in the Holy Roman Empire precipitated a cataclysmic war
  • The war came in different Phases
  • Treaty of Westphalia
    • This treaty ended the Catholic reformation in Germany
    • They reestablished the Peace of Augsburg
    • The pope could intervene in the Holy Roman Empire
  • The results:
    • The Holy Roman Empire was ruined
    • France gained a lot of power along with Britain
slide16

Italy on the Decline

  • The Renaissance is starting to fade
    • Medici family falls
  • Treaty of Lodi
  • Unification makes for an easy target for ambitious monarchs such as France and Spain
  • Machiavelli was horrified by increasing foreign domination and believed that only a strong leader could unify Italy
    • His book “The Prince” tried to convince the Medici to take control of Italy
slide17

New Monarchs

  • French Monarch
    • King Louis XI assumed the throne after his father Charles VII
      • He created a large royal army, increased taxes, exerted his power over the clergy and encouraged economic growth
    • Francis I
      • Condordat of Bologna
  • English Monarch
    • War of the Roses
    • Henry VII, a Lancaster, got the throne
      • Established the Tudor Dynasty
      • Nobility no longer have private armies
      • Parliament still maintained power over the king
slide18

New Monarchs

  • Spanish Monarch
    • Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of

Castile laid the groundwork for unification

      • In the attempt for religious conformity, the couple started the Reconquista Spanish Inquisition
  • German Monarch
    • Not considered a “New Monarch”
    • Charles V
      • Most powerful ruler in Europe in 1500s
      • Control over the Hapsburg and Spain
      • Tried to prevent the spread of Protestantismin the Holy Roman Empire
slide19

Life During the 1500s

  • Bourgeoisie were the wealthiest and most powerful
    • Can be compared to the middle class
  • Peasants made up the majority of the population and workedfarms
    • They all mostly lived in rural areas
  • Cities began to grow during this time
    • Population grew
    • Strict patriarchal society
slide20

Exploration

  • Contact with non-Europeans were limited up until now
    • “God, glory and gold”
  • Europeans were trying to reach Asia
  • Religion also had an influence on exploration
  • Monarchies had increased both their authority, their resources and were in a position to turn their energies beyond their borders
  • Europe had achieved the wealth and technology to voyage beyond
    • Creation of portolani
    • Better ships and navigational techniques
    • Knowledge of wind patterns
  • Led to the Colombian Exchange
slide22

FRQ Prompts

  • Prompt One: Social

Discuss the social consequences that the Protestant Reformation had from 1520-1600.2001 Released AP European History Free Response Questions

  • Prompt Two: Cultural / Political

In what ways does the art of the renaissance reflect the political outlooks of European nations from 1450-1600?

  • Prompt Two: Economic

How and to what extent did the poor economy of the 16th century affect class relations across Europe?