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  1. Systems Analysis & Design Methods Budhi Buscas Edward Savage Bradley Stockton Ridwan Syafei Systems Analysis and Design

  2. “The computer is a moron.” Peter Ferdinand Drucker (November 19, 1909–November 11, 2005) see an example here… “People think computers will keep them from making mistakes. They're wrong. With computers you make mistakes faster.” Adam Osborne (March 6, 1939 – March 18, 2003) Systems Analysis and Design

  3. Introduction • Overview • Present a hypothetical project • Review applicable principles of IT Project management from class discussions • Discuss general principles of systems analysis and design • Review “waterfall” and “iterative” approaches to project development • Apply these approaches to the hypothetical project Systems Analysis and Design

  4. Hypothetical IT Project • Online Advisory Module • Create an online, personalized advising system • System Functions • Track progress and classes • Create hypothetical personalized schedules based on historical semester offerings • Analyze student progress to anticipate future class needs based on majors • Provide customized information on alternative pathways • Track feedback on quality of instruction and content. • Goals • Improve student graduation rate • Optimize class size • Minimize schedule conflicts • Reduce size of advisory staff • Reduce cost Systems Analysis and Design

  5. Hypothetical IT Project • As a manager: • How should you proceed and what are the factors that impact on the development of this project? Systems Analysis and Design

  6. Introduction • Prior Discussion in Class • Determinants of Success/Failure of IT Projects • Cost of IT Projects • Principles of Outsourcing for IT Projects Systems Analysis and Design

  7. Introduction Lecture, Lacity, MC: Management of IT-EnabledBusiness Projects, presented 2/28/07 Determinants of Success/Failure of IT Projects Systems Analysis and Design

  8. Introduction Keil, M., and Montealegre, R., "Cutting Your Losses: Extricating Your Organization When A Big Project Goes Awry," Sloan Management Review, Vol. 41, 3, 2000, pp. 55-68. Cost of IT Projects • “Denver Airport -- Baggage Handling System” • “Expectations: • $175.6 million contract with BAE Automated Systems to develop the system • 18 month schedule to complete, April 22 1992 to Oct 1993” • “Outcome: • Cancelled after horrible test in April 1994, after spending over $2 billion” • As a manager approaching development projects - Where did this fail? • Planning phase? • Design phase? • Implementation phase? • What development methodology was used? Systems Analysis and Design

  9. Introduction Lecture, Lacity, MC: Management of IT-EnabledBusiness Projects, presented 2/28/07 Determinants of Success/Failure of IS Projects As a manager, what development methodology should you choose? Systems Analysis and Design

  10. Introduction Lecture, Lacity, MC: Nature of Information Technology Within Organizations, presented 1/31/07 Management Principles for IS Projects Governance and Decision Domains Systems Analysis and Design

  11. Introduction • How are Information Systems developed • General Principles • Development techniques • Advantages and disadvantages for different methodologies. Systems Analysis and Design

  12. Introduction Dennis A, Wixom BH, Roth RM. “Systems Analysis and Design” 3rd ed. Wiley, 2005, pp 12-13. General • Methodology on Information systems development. • “Waterfall Techniques” -- Each step of the process must be completed in sequence • Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methods (SSADM) • “Iterative” or “incremental” – develop systems in smaller steps with repeated iterations utilizing the information and knowledge gained from the first iteration • Rapid Application Development Methods (RAD) • Example: Hypothetical development project Systems Analysis and Design

  13. Information Systems Development Lyytinen, K, Robey, D, “Learning failure in information systems development”, Information Systems Journal, Vol. 9. 2, 1999, p85-101. Information Systems Development (ISD): Definition: Creating “…value-adding processes that serve the needs of an organization.” “Not just computers and computer code” (Brad Stockton –personal communication) Systems Analysis and Design

  14. Information Systems Development http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4.html Issues in early system development • Unstructured Methodologies • limited user involvement • inadequate description of requirements • unstructured analysis and design • absence of easy to use tools • inflexible storage and data management • Systems did not satisfy business requirements • lack of ownership • requirements may have changed or been misunderstood • inadequate analysis and design prior to delivery Systems Analysis and Design

  15. Information Systems Development Representative System Development Methodologies http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4.html • This lead to the development of “Structured methodologies” for system development • Clarify and reduce misunderstanding of business requirements by formalizing the descriptive process • Standardize best practice techniques for the analysis and design process Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) Rapid Application Development (RAD) Architected Rapid Application Development (Architected RAD) Dynamic Systems Development Methodology (DSDM) Joint Application Development (JAD) Information Engineering (IE) Rational Unified Process (RUP) Structured Analysis and Design eXtreme Programming (XP) Systems Analysis and Design

  16. Information Systems Development Whitten, Jeffrey L. , Bentley, Lonnie D, and Dittman, Kevin , Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 7/e, Mc Graw-Hill, 2007 • Stages: • Development • Operation and maintenance Systems Analysis and Design

  17. Information Systems Development Software Project Management: Methodologies & Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th September 2004 http://paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-essay-final.pdf. Wikipedia | Methodology (Software engineering) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodology (software_engineering). Imperial College London | The Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing http://foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/. • “Methodology: • A codified set of recommended practices, sometimes accompanied by training materials, formal educational programs, worksheets and diagramming tools. • Thick methodology: • A methodology that includes a large amount of formal process paperwork and documentation • Thin methodology: • A methodology that eschews formal process paperwork and documentation.” Systems Analysis and Design

  18. Information Systems Development Whitten, Jeffrey L. , Bentley, Lonnie D, and Dittman, Kevin , Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 7/e, Mc Graw-Hill, 2007 Information Systems Development methodology: A standardized sequence of Information Systems development processes which solve problems, give benefits, and competitive advantages to an organization. Systems Analysis and Design

  19. Information Systems Development Sircar S, Nerur SP, Mahapatra R. “Revolution or Evolution? A Comparison of Object-Oriented and Structured Systems Development Methods” MIS Quarterly, 25, 4, 2001, pp. 457-471. • Systems Analysis and Design • Analysis: Collect, compile and document the IS requirements, create models of the system. • Design: Create specifications, design, implement and test Systems Analysis and Design

  20. Information Systems Development Four Phases of Development Dennis, Alan, Wixom, Barbara, Roth, Roberta. Systems Analysis and Design 3rd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, 2005. Systems Analysis and Design

  21. Information Systems Development Dennis, Alan, Wixom, Barbara, Roth, Roberta. Systems Analysis and Design 3rd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, 2005. Systems Analysis and Design

  22. Information Systems Development Principles: Whitten, Jeffrey L. , Bentley, Lonnie D, and Dittman, Kevin , Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 7/e, Mc Graw-Hill, 2007 • “Justify systems as capital investments.” • “Get the system users involved.” • “Don’t be afraid to cancel or revise scope.” • “Use a problem-solving approach.” • “Establish phases and activities.” • “Document throughout development.” • “Establish standards.” • “Manage the process and projects.” • “Divide and conquer.” • “Design systems for growth and change.” Systems Analysis and Design

  23. Hypothetical IT Project • Online Advisory Module • Create an online, personalized advising system • System Functions • Track progress and classes • Create hypothetical personalized schedules based on historical semester offerings • Analyze student progress to anticipate future class needs based on majors • Provide customized information on alternative pathways • Track feedback on quality of instruction and content. • Goals • Improve student graduation rate • Optimize class size • Minimize conflict • Reduce size of advisory staff • Reduce cost Systems Analysis and Design

  24. Structured System Analysis and Design Dennis, Alan, Wixom, Barbara, Roth, Roberta. Systems Analysis and Design 3rd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, 2005. • Overview • “Waterfall Techniques” -- Each step of the process must be completed in sequence • The next phase cannot begin before the previous phase is completed. • Structured System Analysis and Design Methods (SSADM) Systems Analysis and Design

  25. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Office_of_Government_Commerce, viewed 3/10/2007. History • Developed by the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (UK) • Office of Government Commerce (OGC) • support the procurement and acquisition process of public sector organizations in the UK through policy and process guidance and the negotiation of overarching service and provision frameworks • Made mandatory for new system development in 1983 Systems Analysis and Design

  26. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Systems_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007 • Define the system • Set the scope • Develop project plan Strategic Planning Feasibility Study SSADM Requirements Analysis Full Study Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Physical Design Development Construct and Test Production Systems Analysis and Design

  27. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) • Planning • Goal: Reduce costs and improve student graduation rates by developing an online academic advisor application for MyGateway • $250k/year cost savings from reduced staff of Academic Advisors • $800k increased revenue from student retention due to increased visibility and management of personal academic requirements • Scope: Student activities related to managing their academic progress • Budget: • $800k/year 1 for development (10 FTE’s for 6 months) • $160k/year for maintenance (2 FTE’s for 2 months) Systems Analysis and Design

  28. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) • Tasks: • Gather specific business requirements • Create system design • Build system • Write test conditions • Execute test • Implement system • Train students • Maintain system Systems Analysis and Design

  29. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Systems_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007 Strategic Planning • Analyze business and user requirements Feasibility Study SSADM Requirements Analysis Full Study Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Physical Design Development Construct and Test Production Systems Analysis and Design

  30. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) • Business Requirements: • Single access point to manage individual degree program • Personal degree requirements • Progress towards earning degree • Remaining requirements • Class suggestions based on individual needs and class availability • Class add/drop functionality • Comprehensive grade report and analysis • Prospective schedule planning • Class assignment • Warning prompts • Out of scope: • Student tuition/fee information • Tuition assistance functionality • Email functionality • Help center functionality Systems Analysis and Design

  31. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) • Cost / Service Tradeoff? • Tuition fee/tuition functionality - $30k/year • Tuition assistance functionality - $1000k/year • Email functionality - $15k/year • Help Centerfunctionality - $200/year Systems Analysis and Design

  32. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Software Project Management: Methodologies & Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th September 2004 http://paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-essay-final.pdf, viewed 3/29/2007. http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4/sld008.htm, viewed 3/29/2007. Data Flow Modeling (DFM): • Identify, model and document data flow in the business information system • Data transformation processes • Data storage • External entities (things which send data into a system or receive data) • Data flow paths Students Faculty Database Administration Systems Analysis and Design

  33. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Software Project Management: Methodologies & Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th September 2004 http://paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-essay-final.pdf. http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4.html, viewed 3/29/2007. http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4/sld007.htm, viewed 3/29/2007 Logical Data Modeling (LDM): • Identify, model and document data requirements • Entity (Required business information) • Relationships between entities. Course Descriptions Course Schedules Courses Taken Grades Database Academic Plan Systems Analysis and Design

  34. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Software Project Management: Methodologies & Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th September 2004 http://paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-essay-final.pdf, viewed 3/29/2007. http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4/sld007.htm, viewed 3/29/2007. Entity/Event Modeling (EM): • Identify, model and document the sequence of business events • Entity Life History (ELH) Student Course Requirements and Desired Electives Prerequisites Database Courses taken Course Schedules Student Academic Plan Systems Analysis and Design

  35. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Systems_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007 Models: Data Flow Logical Data Entity/Event Strategic Planning Feasibility Study SSADM Requirements Analysis Full Study Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Functions Requirements Specification Physical Design Development Construct and Test Data Formats Production Inputs Outputs Systems Analysis and Design

  36. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Systems_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007 Strategic Planning Inputs: Class Prerequisites Graduation Requirements Past and Projected Schedules Feasibility Study SSADM Requirements Analysis Full Study Requirements Specification Functions: Create logical class sequences Analysis of student progress Logical System Specification Physical Design Development Construct and Test Data Formats Outputs: Suggested pathways Warnings about unstable paths Schedule plans Production Systems Analysis and Design

  37. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Systems_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007 Strategic Planning Functions Feasibility Study Requirements Specification SSADM Data Formats Requirements Analysis Full Study Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Inputs Outputs Physical Design Development Construct and Test Logical System Specification Production Detailed Narratives Technical Specifications Systems Analysis and Design

  38. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Systems_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softwar_design viewed 4/1/2007. Strategic Planning … a process of problem-solving and planning for a software solution… Feasibility Study SSADM Requirements Analysis Full Study Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Physical Design Development Construct and Test Production Systems Analysis and Design

  39. Added functionality My Academic Advisor: Systems Analysis and Design

  40. My Gateway User clicks Advisor Link User clicks ‘Degree Requirements’ Degree Req Page Personal Academic Advisor Page User clicks ‘Degree Progress’ Degree Progress Page User clicks ‘Add/Drop’ User clicks ‘Degree Requirements’ Add/Drop Page Course Suggestion Page User clicks ‘GPA Analysis’ GPA Analysis Page Systems Analysis and Design

  41. User clicks ‘Course Suggestion’ Page Course Suggestion Page User clicks on specific course Description & ‘Add’ button User clicks ‘Degree Progress’ Degree Progress Page User clicks ‘Add/Drop’ User clicks Advisor Link Add/Drop Page Academic Advisor Page User clicks ‘GPA Analysis’ GPA Analysis Page Systems Analysis and Design

  42. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Goodland M, Riha K: SSADM – an Introduction. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~steve/1/, viewed 3/10/2007. Strategic Planning Feasibility Study SSADM Requirements Analysis Full Study Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Physical Design Development Construct and Test Production Systems Analysis and Design

  43. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) • Software testing is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security, and quality of the developed computer software. • Test Levels: • Unit Testing – programmers test individual modules • Integration Testing – tests interfaces and interaction between modules • Functional Testing – tests the product • System Testing – tests integrated system • Acceptance Testing – can be conducted by the client Systems Analysis and Design

  44. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) • Acceptance Testing – Allows the end-user to decide whether to accept the product. • Examples: • Does the website provide a single point of access for students to manage their degree program? • Does the website accurately include information from other UMSL applications (ie – GPA, course availability, etc) • Does the website provide accurate course suggestions based on the individual degree requirements and progress? Systems Analysis and Design

  45. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Software Release – the distribution of the software product Can be done in phases: Alpha – stage when new features are being added Beta – system is actively being debugged Stable – important bugs have been removed Systems Analysis and Design

  46. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Software Project Management: Methodologies & Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th September 2004 http://paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-essay-final.pdf, , viewed 3/29/2007. • Advantages • Open Standard • Many companies offer CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools, training and support • Use for • Any size project • Develop new projects • Maintain existing projects Systems Analysis and Design

  47. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Software Project Management: Methodologies & Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th September 2004 http://paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-essay-final.pdf, viewed 3/29/2007. • Advantages • Sequential approach dividing the project into modules, stages, steps, and tasks, allows straight forward project management • Can use experienced and inexperienced development staff that is tolerant of staff turnover • Facilitate communication between participants • Enhance initial understanding of design requirements and minimizing drift from these requirements Systems Analysis and Design

  48. Structured System Analysis & Design Methods (SSADM) Software Project Management: Methodologies & Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th September 2004 http://paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-essay-final.pdf , viewed 3/29/2007. Middleton, P. “Barriers to the efficient and effective use of information technology”, The International Journal of Public Sector Management. Vol.13, 1, 2000, pp. 85-100. Middleton, P. “Software Quality by Administration”, Software Quality Journal, Vol. 7, 261-275, 1998. • Disadvantages • Assumes the requirements established at the beginning of the project will not change • Sequential approach can be very time consuming and inefficient creating delay. • There may be a longer development time and reduced flexibility is more likely to create “failed successes” -- Successful project that fails to meet its goals. • “The assumption of a stable and coherent strategic context within which an SSADM project would take place was shown to be invalid in practice.” • “…good quality, firm, detailed requirements are very hard to obtain.” Systems Analysis and Design

  49. Rapid Application Development (RAD) Methods • Overview • “Iterative” or “incremental” – develop systems in smaller steps with repeated iterations utilizing the information and knowledge gained from the first iteration • Rapid Application Development Methods (RAD) Systems Analysis and Design

  50. Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods Compton TR, Minimizing waste with RAD, Strategic Finance; Vol., 83, 12, 2002; pg. 50-3. What is RAD? • “A systems development philosophy that can be effective in controlling waste and inefficiencies that are so common with system development projects.” • “iterative development,… construction of prototypes, and the use of Computer-aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools.” The Goal: • High quality systems • Rapid Development • Reduced cost Systems Analysis and Design