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  1. Systems Analysis and Design:Project Planning Romi Satria Wahonoromi@romisatriawahono.nethttp://romisatriawahono.net081586220090

  2. Contents • Introduction • Project Planning • System Analysis • System Design • System Implementation

  3. Recap • The systems analyst is a key person analyzing the business, identifying opportunities for improvement, and designing information systems to implement these ideas • The Systems Development Lifecycle consists of four stages: Planning, Analysis, Design, and Implementation • The major development methodologies: • Structured Design • Waterfall method • Parallel development • Rapid Application Development • Phased Development • Prototyping • Throw-away Prototyping • Agile Development • Extreme Programming • Scrum

  4. 2. PROJECT PLANNING

  5. Learning Objectives • Understand the importance of linking the information system to business needs • Be able to create a system request • Understand how to assess technical, economic and organizational feasibility • Be able to perform a feasibility analysis • Be able to perform a projectestimation

  6. SDLC and Deliverables

  7. Key Ideas • When do projects begin? • When someone sees an opportunity to create business value using information technology • Feasibility analysis is used to aid in the decision of whether or not to proceed with the project • Project estimationis important activity which aims to estimating the size of software project

  8. Identifying Business Value

  9. When Do ProjectsBegin? • When someone sees an opportunity to create business value from using information technology • Then he or she creates a system request • Feasibility analysis is used to aid in the decision of whether or not to proceed with the project • Project estimationis important activity which aims to estimating the size of software project

  10. Elements of a System Request • Project Name • The name of project • Project sponsor • Primary point of contact for the project • Business need • Reasonprompting the project • Business requirements • Business capabilities the system will need to have • Business value • Benefitsthe organization can expect from the project • Special issues • Anything else that should be considered

  11. Business Need • Describes why the system should be built • Why the project should be funded • Should be clear and concise • Probably not completely defined

  12. Business Requirements • What the system will do • High level explanation to the approval committee • Tell about the features and capabilities • Can be replaced by Use Case Diagram

  13. Business Value • Tangible value • A quantifiable value • E.g.: 2 % reduction in operating cost • Intangible value • Intuitive believe why the system will help the company • E.g.: improved customer service, a better competitive position

  14. Exercise: Identify Tangible and Intangible Value Dominion Virginia Power is one of the nation’s ten largest investor-owned electric utilities. The company delivers power to more than two million homes and businesses in Virginia and North Carolina. In 1997, the company overhauled some of its core processes and technology. The goal was to improve customer service and cut operations costs by developing a new workflow and geographic information system. When the project was finished, service engineers who used to sift through thousands of paper maps could pinpoint the locations of electricity poles with computerized searches. The project helped the utility improve management of all its facilities, records, maps, scheduling, and human resources. That, in turn, helped increase employee productivity, improve customer response times, and reduce the costs of operating crews.

  15. Special Issues Identify special issues or constraints • Budget constraints • Deadline • Legal requirements

  16. Elements of a System Request

  17. Exercise: Membuat System Request • Lihatcontoh System Request untukInternet Order Project • Pikirkansuatusistem* yang saatinidibutuhkanolehperusahaanatauorganisasianda • Buat System Request darisistemtersebut * System request yang anda buat akanmenjadistudikasusdaripembelajarankitaselama course berlangsung

  18. Feasibility Analysis

  19. Feasibility Analysis Detailing Expected Costs and Benefits • Technical feasibility • Can we build it? • Economic feasibility • Should we build it? • Organizational feasibility • If we build it, will they come?

  20. Feasibility Analysis Template

  21. Technical Feasibility: Can We Build It? • Familiarity with application • Knowledge of business domain • Need to understand improvements • Need to recognize pitfalls and bad ideas • Familiarity with technology • Is technology new to this organization? • Is this a brand new technology? • Extension of existing firm technologies

  22. Technical Feasibility: Can We Build It? • Project size • Number of people, time, and features • Compatibility with existing systems • Systems are not built in a vacuum • Needs to integrate with current systems and data

  23. Economic Feasibility: Should We Build It?

  24. Cost-Benefit Analysis - Cash Flow • Project costs and benefits over several years(3–5) • Use normal growth rates for sales etc. • Total added to determine • Overall Benefits = Total Benefits – Total Costs • Higher number is better

  25. Cost-Benefit Analysis - Cash Flow

  26. Cash Flow Plan

  27. Present Value (PV) • The amount of an investment today compared to the same amount n years in the future • Taking into account inflation and time PV = Amount (1 + Interest Rate)n

  28. Net Present Value

  29. Net Present Value (NPV) The present value of benefit less the present value of cost NPV = PV Benefits – PV Costs

  30. NPV Calculation

  31. Return on Investment (ROI) The Amount of revenue or cost savings results from a given investment ROI = Total Benefits – Total Costs Total Costs

  32. ROI Calculation

  33. Break Even Point (BEP) The point in time when the costs of the project equal the value it has delivered BEP = * Use the yearly NPV amount from the first year in which project has positive cash flow Yearly NPV* – Cumulative NPV Yearly* NPV

  34. BreakEven Point (BEP)

  35. Organizational FeasibilityIf we build it, will they come? Strategic Alignment • How well does the project match up with the business strategy? Stakeholder analysis considers • Project champion(s) • Organizational management • System users • Anybody affected by the change

  36. Stakeholder Analysis Considers • Project champion(s) • High-level non-IS executive • Shepherds project to completion • It's good to have more than one • Organizational management • Need this support to sell system to organization • System users • In the loop so end system meets needs

  37. Stakeholder Analysis Considers

  38. Feasibility Analysis Template

  39. Exercise: Membuat Feasibility Analysis • Lihatcontoh Feasibility Analysis untukInternet Order Project • Perhatikankembali System Request yang sebelumnyasudahkitabuat • Buat Feasibility Analysis dari system yang akankitabuattersebut

  40. Project Size Estimation

  41. Project Estimation Trade-offs • Size • Function points (FP) • Lines of code (LOC) • Use case points (UCP) • Effort • Person-months (PM) • Time • Hours (H) • Months (M)

  42. Project Estimation Methods

  43. 1. Simply Method • Use the time spent for planning • Along with industry standard percentages • Estimate the overall time for the project

  44. Time Estimation of SDLC (Industry Standard)

  45. Time Spent for Planning Phase We are given thatso

  46. Time Spent for Analysis Phase We are also given thatso