electromagnetic properties of materials characterization at microwave frequencies and beyond n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Shelley Begley Application Development Engineer Agilent Technologies PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Shelley Begley Application Development Engineer Agilent Technologies

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 55

Shelley Begley Application Development Engineer Agilent Technologies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 216 Views
  • Uploaded on

Electromagnetic Properties of Materials: Characterization at Microwave Frequencies and Beyond. Shelley Begley Application Development Engineer Agilent Technologies. Agenda.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Shelley Begley Application Development Engineer Agilent Technologies' - kitra-martin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
agenda
Agenda

DefinitionsMeasurement TechniquesParallel Plate Coaxial Probe Transmission Line and Free-Space Resonant Cavity Summary

definitions
Definitions

Loss Tangent?

  • Permittivity is a physical quantity that describes how an electric field affects and is affected by a dielectric medium and is determined by the ability of a material to polarize in response to an applied electric field, and thereby to cancel, partially, the field inside the material. Permittivity relates therefore to a material's ability to transmit (or "permit") an electric field…The permittivity of a material is usually given relative to that of vacuum, as a relative permittivity, (also called dielectric constant in some cases)….- Wikipedia

Dissipation Factor?

Permittivity!

Dielectric Constant?

Permeability!

permittivity and permeability definitions
Permittivity and Permeability Definitions

Permittivity

(Dielectric Constant)

  • interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field.
permittivity and permeability definitions1
Permittivity and Permeability Definitions

Permittivity

(Dielectric Constant)

  • interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field.
permittivity and permeability definitions2
Permittivity and Permeability Definitions

Permeability

Permittivity

(Dielectric Constant)

  • interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field.

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field.

permittivity and permeability definitions3
Permittivity and Permeability Definitions

Permeability

Permittivity

(Dielectric Constant)

  • interaction of a material in the presence of an external electric field.

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Complex but not Constant!

slide8

Electromagnetic Field Interaction

STORAGE

Magnetic

Electric

Fields

Fields

Permeability

Permittivity

MUT

STORAGE

slide9

Electromagnetic Field Interaction

STORAGE

Magnetic

Electric

Fields

Fields

LOSS

Permeability

Permittivity

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

loss tangent

Quality Factor

Dissipation Factor

Loss Tangent
relaxation constant t

Water at 20o C

100

10

most energy is lost at 1/t

1

1

10

100

f, GHz

Relaxation Constant t
  • t= Time required for 1/e of an aligned system to return to equilibrium or random state, in seconds.
measurement techniques
Measurement Techniques

Coaxial

Probe

Parallel Plate

Transmission

Line including Free Space

Resonant

Cavity

which technique is best1
Which Technique is Best?

It Depends… on

  • Frequency of interest
  • Expected value of er
  • Required measurement accuracy
which technique is best2
Which Technique is Best?

It Depends… on

  • Frequency of interest
  • Expected value of er
  • Required measurement accuracy
  • Material properties (i.e., homogeneous, isotropic)
  • Form of material (i.e., liquid, powder, solid, sheet)
  • Sample size restrictions
which technique is best3
Which Technique is Best?

It Depends… on

  • Frequency of interest
  • Expected value of er
  • Required measurement accuracy
  • Material properties (i.e., homogeneous, isotropic)
  • Form of material (i.e., liquid, powder, solid, sheet)
  • Sample size restrictions
  • Destructive or non-destructive
  • Contacting or non-contacting
  • Temperature
slide17

Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss

Loss

High

Coaxial Probe

Transmission line

Medium

Free Space

Parallel Plate

Resonant Cavity

Low

Frequency

50 MHz

5 GHz

20 GHz

60 GHz

40 GHz

500+ GHz

RF

Low frequency

Millimeter-wave

Microwave

slide18

Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss

Loss

High

Coaxial Probe

Medium

Low

Frequency

50 MHz

5 GHz

20 GHz

60 GHz

40 GHz

500+ GHz

RF

Low frequency

Millimeter-wave

Microwave

slide19

Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss

Loss

High

Coaxial Probe

Medium

Low

Frequency

50 MHz

5 GHz

20 GHz

60 GHz

40 GHz

500+ GHz

RF

Low frequency

Millimeter-wave

Microwave

slide20

Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss

Loss

High

Coaxial Probe

Transmission line

Medium

Free Space

Low

Frequency

50 MHz

5 GHz

20 GHz

60 GHz

40 GHz

500+ GHz

RF

Low frequency

Millimeter-wave

Microwave

slide21

Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss

Loss

High

Coaxial Probe

Transmission line

Medium

Free Space

Low

Frequency

50 MHz

5 GHz

20 GHz

60 GHz

40 GHz

500+ GHz

RF

Low frequency

Millimeter-wave

Microwave

slide22

Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss

Loss

High

Coaxial Probe

Transmission line

Medium

Free Space

Parallel Plate

Low

Frequency

50 MHz

5 GHz

20 GHz

60 GHz

40 GHz

500+ GHz

RF

Low frequency

Millimeter-wave

Microwave

slide23

Measurement Techniques vs. Frequency and Material Loss

Loss

High

Coaxial Probe

Transmission line

Medium

Free Space

Parallel Plate

Resonant Cavity

Low

Frequency

50 MHz

5 GHz

20 GHz

60 GHz

40 GHz

500+ GHz

RF

Low frequency

Millimeter-wave

Microwave

parallel plate capacitor system

A

t

Parallel Plate Capacitor System

LCR or Impedance Analyzer

Dielectric Test Fixture

(magnetic fixture also available)

measurement techniques that use a vector network analyzer
Measurement Techniques that use a Vector Network Analyzer
  • Coaxial Probe
  • Transmission Line and Free-space
  • Resonant Cavity
coaxial probe system
Coaxial Probe System

Computer

(not required for PNA)

Network Analyzer

(or E4991A Impedance Analyzer)

GP-IB or LAN

85070E

Dielectric Probe

85070E Software (included in kit)

coaxial probe

Reflection

(S )

11

Coaxial Probe
  • Material assumptions:
  • effectively infinite thickness
  • non-magnetic
  • isotropic
  • homogeneous
  • no air gaps or bubbles
slide29

Three Probe Designs

  • High Temperature Probe
  • 0.200 – 20GHz (low end 0.01GHz with impedance analyzer)
  • Withstands -40 to 200 degrees C
  • Survives corrosive chemicals
  • Flanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids.
slide30

Three Probe Designs

  • Slim Form Probe
  • 0.500 – 50GHz
  • Low cost consumable design
  • Fits in tight spaces, smaller sample sizes
  • For liquids and soft semi-solids only
slide31

Three Probe Designs

  • Performance Probe
  • Combines rugged high temperature performance with high frequency performance, all in one slim design.
  • 0.500 – 50GHz
  • Withstands -40 to 200 degrees C
  • Hermetically sealed on both ends, OK for autoclave
  • Food grade stainless steel
transmission line system

Computer

(not required for PNA)

85071E Materials Measurement Software

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

GPIB or LAN

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

transmission line

l

Transmission

Reflection

(S )

(S )

21

11

Transmission Line
  • Material assumptions:
  • sample fills fixture cross section
  • no air gaps at fixture walls
  • flat faces, perpendicular to long axis
  • Known thickness > 20/360 λ
slide34

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line Sample Holders

slide35

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

transmission free space system

Computer

(not required for PNA)

Network Analyzer

85071E Materials Measurement Software

Sample holder

fixtured between two antennae

Transmission Free-Space System

GP-IB or LAN

transmission free space

l

Transmission

Reflection

(S21 )

(S11 )

Transmission Free-Space
  • Material assumptions:
  • Flat parallel faced samples
  • Sample in non-reactive region
  • Beam spot is contained in sample
  • Known thickness > 20/360 λ
reflectivity measurement system
Reflectivity Measurement System

Computer

(not required for PNA)

Network Analyzer with Time Domain option

GP-IB or LAN

85071E Materials Measurement Software

with Reflectivity Option 200

NRL Arch Fixture with MUT

nrl arch
NRL Arch

Results in dB

port 1

port 2

S21

Incident Wave

Reflected Wave

MUT

resonant cavity system
Resonant Cavity System

Computer

(not required for PNA)

Network Analyzer

GP-IB or LAN

Resonant Cavity Software

Resonant Cavity with sample

connected between ports.

resonant cavity technique

empty cavity

sample inserted

Q

c

Q

s

f

f

f

s

c

Resonant Cavity Technique

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

slide49

Resonant Cavity Fixtures

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-2.5.5.5.13

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

for more information
For More Information
  • Visit our website at:
  • www.agilent.com/find/materials

For Product Overviews, Application Notes, Manuals, Quick Quotes, international contact information…

for more information1
For More Information
  • Visit our website at:
  • www.agilent.com/find/materials
  • Call our on-line technical support:
  • +1 800 829-4444

For Product Overviews, Application Notes, Manuals, Quick Quotes, international contact information…

For personal help for your application, formal quotes, to get in touch with Agilent field engineers in your area.

references
References

R N Clarke (Ed.), “A Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequencies,” Published by The Institute of Measurement & Control (UK) & NPL, 2003

J. Baker-Jarvis, M.D. Janezic, R.F. Riddle, R.T. Johnk, P. Kabos, C. Holloway, R.G. Geyer, C.A. Grosvenor, “Measuring the Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials: Solids, Liquids, Metals, Building Materials, and Negative-Index Materials,” NIST Technical Note 15362005

“Test methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and temperatures to 1650°, ” ASTM Standard D2520, American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M. and Baker-Jarvis J., “Full-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol. 47, no. 10, Oct 1999, pg. 2014-2020

J. Krupka , A.P. Gregory, O.C. Rochard, R.N. Clarke, B. Riddle, J. Baker-Jarvis, “Uncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniques,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No. 10, 2001, pg. 2673-2676

“Basics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materials”. Agilent application note. 5989-2589EN, April 28, 2005