comparative psychology animal cognition n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY Animal Cognition PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY Animal Cognition

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 9

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY Animal Cognition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 148 Views
  • Uploaded on

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY Animal Cognition. SIGNALLING SYSTEMS – FUNCTION & EVOLUTION The function of signals Signals are a basic form of non – linguistic communication. To maximise survival chances and gene replication, organisms must often communicate.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY Animal Cognition' - kishi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
comparative psychology animal cognition

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

SIGNALLING SYSTEMS – FUNCTION & EVOLUTION

The function of signals

Signals are a basic form of non – linguistic communication.

To maximise survival chances and gene replication, organisms must often communicate.

Communication involves the transfer of information and the manipulation of the behaviour of others.

For communication to occur, information sent must produce some change in behaviour from the

participant.

Signal communication is used for a variety of vital survival purposes, such as:

FEEDING – Foraging behaviour (waggle dance of honeybees).

ATTACK – The ritualised threat behaviour of growling and hackle raising shown by Wolves.

DEFENCE – The alarm calls of birds, the defensive threat signals of vividly coloured insect.

SOCIAL ORGANISATION – Status signals of posture shown by the dominant wolves, monkeys.

REPRODUCTION – The mating fitness displays of competing male peacocks.

CONT…

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition1

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

SIGNALLING SYSTEMS – FUNCTION & EVOLUTION

The Evolution of Signals

Visual communication displays often evolve from behaviours shown in feeding, body

maintenance or movement and become increasingly stereotyped and divorced from their original

function as they become used for communication.

An example of this is, Mallard duck courtship displays appear to have originally evolved from

feather preening movements.

The use of behaviour for signalling often starts through approach – avoid conflicts between competing

males, or in courtship. This is a stressful situation for particular male involved.

Under these stressful conditions – the Mallard duck, caught in a dilemma over whether to approach

or avoid female duck, may have started preening himself as a displacement activity in his anxious

state of indecision. This would have acted as a signal for the female to know his intentions (and so

stay or approach the male if interested or remove herself if not).

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition2

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

SIGNALLING SYSTEMS – MODES OF SIGNALLING

TACTILE SIGNALS

Advantages – High certainty that the message will be received due to intimacy of contact.

Disadvantages – Extremely limited in range. Fairly limited in the amount and complexity of

information.

Herring gull chicks peck at the beaks of their parents to stimulate feeding behaviour.

Bonobo chimpanzees signal conciliation through sexual touching behaviour.

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition3

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

SIGNALLING SYSTEMS – MODES OF SIGNALLING

SOUND SIGNALS

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition4

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

SIGNALLING SYSTEMS – MODES OF SIGNALLING

CHEMICAL SIGNALS

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition5

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

SIGNALLING SYSTEMS – MODES OF SIGNALLING

VISUAL SIGNALS

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition6

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

Teaching human language to non – human animals

Washoe – Gardner & Gardner (1969) taught the female chimp Washoe American sign

Language (ASL).

Lana – Rumbaugh (1977) taught the chimp an artificial language of symbols (Yerkish)

on a computer keyboard.

Akeakamai – Herman et al (1984) taught the dolphin an artificial, visual language of signs

based on gestures.

Phoenix – Herman et al (1984) taught the dolphin an artificial acoustic language based

on computer generated whistling noises.

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition7

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

Natural animal languages – The studies

Cheney and Seyfarth’s (1990) – provides an example of language meaning in Vervet

monkeys.

Bright (1984) – Recorded the sounds of a captured dolphin.

Janik (2000) – documented the richness of dolphin language.

Crow (2000) – has argued that language in humans appeared as a result of a single genetic

mutation in one individual.

LANA CROSBIE

comparative psychology animal cognition8

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGYAnimal Cognition

EXAM QUESTIONS

(a) Describe two research studies of animal language. (12 marks)

(b) Assess the value of these and / or other research studies of animal language. (12 marks)

Describe and evaluate the use of two different signalling systems in non – human animals. (24 marks)

LANA CROSBIE