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The Digestion System. Ch 38-2 Guide Mechanical & Chemical Breakdown Of Food for energy. I 1) Mouth:. Mechanically breaks up food Chemically digests Carbohydrates Basic pH Enzyme amylase from salivary glands Wets & forms “bolus”. Esophagus.

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the digestion system

The Digestion System

Ch 38-2 Guide

Mechanical &

Chemical Breakdown

Of Food for energy

i 1 mouth
I 1) Mouth:

Mechanically breaks up food

Chemically digests

  • Carbohydrates
  • Basic pH
  • Enzyme amylase from salivary glands

Wets & forms “bolus”

esophagus
Esophagus
  • Bolus movement to stomach by peristalsis
  • (see video)
2 stomach
2. Stomach

Mechanically churns

Stores food

Chemically digests

  • Acid pH
  • Proteins

Enzyme Pepsin

Mucus Lining prevents digestion of itself !

3 small intestine
3. Small Intestine

Absorption

of food

Digestion of

  • Lipids (fats)
  • Carbohydrates

Uses Lipase & Amylase from the pancreas

4 large intestine
4. Large Intestine
  • Absorbs water & vitamins
  • No Digestion
  • Eliminates wastes
5 salivary glands
5. Salivary Glands:
  • Makes the salivary juices
  • Contains amylase enzymes
  • Basic pH
  • For the digestion of carbohydrates
6 liver makes bile stores sugar as glycogen
6 Liver:.Makes bile & Stores sugar as glycogen

No food passes through the liver

No digestion takes place in the liver

Gall Bladder stores bile

7 gall bladder stores bile made by the liver
7.Gall Bladder: Stores bile made by the liver
  • Bile emulsifies fats
  • Makes them water soluble
  • In small intestine

No food passes through the gall bladder

No digestion takes place in the gall bladder

carter s little liver pills cure all
Carter’s Little Liver Pills: cure=all
  • Liver also cleanses the blood
  • Carter’s pills claimed to cure constipation, headaches, skin problems???
8 pancreas makes digestive juices enzymes acids or bases
8.Pancreas makes digestive juices:Enzymes & Acids or bases

No Digestion in the Pancreas !

No food passes through here

types of digestion
Intracellular:

Inside a cell

Food vacuoles

Small particles

Examples:

Amoeba, Paramecium

Extracellular:

In a sack or tube

Larger food

Then absorbed into a cell

Humans

Types of Digestion:
digestion products
Proteins

Carbo-hydrates

Lipids

Amino acids subunits

Muscle,enzymes,Hb

Last use for food

Simple sugar (glucose)

Quick energy food

1st used

Fatty acids & glycerol

Long term food, insulation,protection

2nd used for food

Digestion Products:
digestion
Digestion:

Is

  • Breaking down food
  • physically & chemically

For

  • The purpose of distributing small water soluble particles to the cells for energy
homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • Maintaining balance
  • “homo”=same
  • “stasis”=state
  • By constant adjustments
  • For survival
ph proper acid or base levels
pH= Proper acid or base levels
  • Basic = > 7
  • Digestion of carbohydrates

& lipids

  • Acidic= < 7
  • Digestion of proteins in the stomach

pH 2 7 8 1 0 12

properties of enzymes
Proteins

Catalysts

Speed reactions

Work fast

Denature at high temp

Properties of Enzymes
enzyme substrate complex
Enzyme-Substrate complex

Active site =

where the

substrate

( reaction molecule)

connects to

enzyme

Active Site

Substrate

Enzyme

lock key model
Lock & Key Model
  • One enzyme
  • for every substrate
  • unique fit

Substrate

Enzyme

enzymes are ph specific
Enzymes are pH specific
  • Different enzymes
  • Different body areas
  • Different optimum pH

Stomach= acid pH

Uses PEPSIN

Mouth= basic pH

Uses AMYLASE

Blood

Mouth

Stomach

bile made in liver stored in gall bladder
Bile: Made in Liver Stored in Gall Bladder
  • Emulsifies fats
  • Makes them water soluble
  • In small intestine
villi small intestine absorb food
Villi: Small intestine absorb food

Many “finger-like” villi

maximize surface area

8 peristalsis
8.Peristalsis:
  • Contractions of the Digestive system
  • Moves food down
  • Controlled by the autonomic nervous system