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Ecology. It is the scientific study in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with the environment are studied. Part 1: Organisms and Their Relationships Part 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem Part 3: Cycling of Matter. Biotic

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ecology

Ecology

It is the scientific study in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with the environment are studied

Part 1: Organisms and Their Relationships

Part 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

biotic and abiotic factors
Biotic

The living or once living factors in an organism’s environment

Abiotic

The nonliving (never alive) factors in an organism’s environment

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Bio

Abio

biotic and abiotic factors1

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

How would something be classified as “Biotic”?

  • They must be composed of cells.
  • Complex organization patterns are found in all living organisms (i.e., cell  tissue  organ…)
  • Living organisms use energy.
  • Living organisms must maintain a state of homeostasis.
  • All organisms develop and change over time.
  • All organisms have the potential to reproduce, either sexually or asexually.
levels of organization

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Levels of Organization

Just to review, let’s start with the atom…

Atom 

Molecule 

Organelle 

Cell 

Tissue 

Organ 

Organism 

Population 

Ecosystem 

Community 

Biome 

Biosphere

ecological levels of organization

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Ecological Levels of Organization
  • Organism: An individual
  • Population: Individual organisms of a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time.
  • Community: A group of interacting populations that occupy the same area at the same time.
levels of organization1

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Levels of Organization
  • Ecosystem: A biological community and all of the abiotic factors that affect it.
  • Biome: A large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities.
  • Biosphere: All biomes together; the Earth
three types of ecosystems
Three Types of Ecosystems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
  • What is the NC main ecosystem?
types of biomes
Types of Biomes
  • Freshwater (ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands)
  • Marine (oceans, coral reefs, estuaries)
  • Desert (hot, dry, semiarid, coastal, cold)
  • Forest (temperate, tropical, boreal forest(taiga))
  • Grassland (savannas, temperate)
  • Tundra (Artic and Alpine)
ecosystem interactions

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Ecosystem Interactions
  • Habitat: An area where an organism lives
  • Niche: The role or position that an organism has in its environment
habitat vs niche

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Habitat vs. Niche

“The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does.

“By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.”

Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology

slide12

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Habitat vs. Niche

A niche is determined by the tolerance limitations of an organism, or a limiting factor.

Limiting factor: Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment.

slide13

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Limiting Factors

Examples of limiting factors-

Amount of water, food, shelter, space.

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep12a.htm

left side intnb reflection

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Left-side IntNB Reflection
  • Differentiate between a local organism’s habitat and niche found in your community.
    • Refer to your notes and neighbors if you need help!
feeding relationships

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Feeding Relationships

There are 3 main types of feeding relationships

1. Producer Consumer

2. Predator Prey

3. Parasite Host

flow of energy in an ecosystem

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem
  • Autotroph: An organism that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food. (Producer)
  • Heterotroph: An organism that gets its energy requirements by consuming other organisms. (Consumer)
different types of heterotrophs

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Different types of Heterotrophs
  • Herbivore: Eats only plants
      • (Deer, rabbits, grasshoppers, etc.)
  • Carnivore: Prey on other heterotrophs
      • (Wolves, lions, cats, etc.)
    • Scavengers feed on carrion (dead animals)
      • (Hyenas, vultures, some crabs, etc.)
  • Omnivore: Eat both plants and animals
      • (Bears, humans, mockingbirds, etc.)
    • Detritivores: Eat fragments of dead matter
      • (Earthworms, millipedes, etc.)
  • Decomposers: Chemically breaks down dead matter
      • (Bacteria and fungi)
symbiotic relationships

Part 1: Organisms and their Relationships

Symbiotic relationships
  • Mutualism: When both organisms benefit
    • Lichens
  • Commensalism: One organism benefits, while the other is neither helped nor harmed.
    • Epiphytes (i.e., Bromeliads)
  • Parasitism: One organism benefits at the expense of the other.
    • Parasitoid wasp eggs on a tomato hornworm
community interactions

Part 1 Review: Organisms and their Relationships

Community Interactions
  • Competition: More than one organism uses a resource at the same time.
  • Predation: The act of one organism consuming another organism for food.
  • Symbiosis: The close relationship that exists when two or more species live together.

Niche competition

Carnivore

Mutualism

models of energy flow

Part 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

Models of Energy Flow
  • Trophic Levels: Each step in a food chain or food web.
    • Autotrophs always make up the first trophic level in ecosystems.
    • Heterotrophs make up the remaining levels
models of energy flow1

Part 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

Models of Energy Flow
  • Food chains: A simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem
models of energy flow2

Part 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

Models of Energy Flow
  • Food webs:

A model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy flows.

models of energy flow3

Part 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

Models of Energy Flow
  • Ecological pyramids: A diagram that can show the relative amounts of energy, biomass, or numbers of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
    • Biomass: The total mass of living matter at each trophic level
activity deadly links on the left hand side of your intnb write the following

Part 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

Activity: Deadly Links(On the left-hand side of your IntNB, write the following)
  • Objective: To understand how food (energy) moves through an ecosystem
  • My role is ____________________.
  • I am a/an herbivore, omnivore or carnivore (Circle one)
cycling of matter

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter
  • Cycles in the Biosphere
    • Natural processes cycle matter through the atmosphere
    • The exchange of matter through the biosphere is called the biogeochemical cycle.
      • Bio: Involves living things
      • Geo: Geological Processes
      • Chemical: Chemical Processes
cycling of matter1

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

The Water Cycle

Solar Energy

Movement of clouds by wind

Evaporation

Precipitation

Precipitation

Transpiration from plants

Percolation in soil

cycling of matter2

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

The Water Cycle

  • Most precipitation falls into the ocean
  • Over land
    • approximately 90% of the water evaporates
    • 10% transpires from plants
  • Only about 2% of water is retained in a reservoir
    • i.e., a glacier, ice cap, aquifer or lake
cycling of matter3

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

CO2 in atmosphere

Burning

Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis

Plants, Algae & Cyanobacteria

Higher level Consumers

Wood & Fossil Fuels

Primary Consumer

Detritivores(soil microbes & others)

Detritus

cycling of matter4

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

  • Short term cycle
    • Autotrophs use CO2 for ____________.
    • Heterotrophs produce CO2 during ________ __________.

Photosynthesis

Cellular

Respiration

cycling of matter5

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

  • Long term cycle: Fossil Fuels
    • Organic matter is buried underground and converted to peat, coal, oil or gas deposits.
    • 5.5 billion tons are burned each year and 3.3 billion tons stay in the atmos-phere, the rest dissolves in sea water*

http://www.ucar.edu/ (The National Center for Atmospheric Research)

cycling of matter6

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

  • Long term cycle: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
    • Marine animals are able to use Carbon to build their skeletal material
    • These organisms fall to thebottom of the ocean floor,creating limestone rock.
cycling of matter7

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

  • Oxygen is found in the atmosphere at a stable concentration of approximately 21%.
    • Because it is a very reactive element, it can quickly combine with other elements and disappear from the atmosphere.
    • Some of the atmospheric oxygen (O2) finds itself lofted high into the upper reaches of the atmosphere called the stratosphere, where it is converted into Ozone (O3)
  • Ozone serves to absorb biologically damaging ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun.
cycling of matter8

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere.
  • Humans have burned so much fuel that there is about 30% more Carbon Dioxide in the air today than there was about 150 years ago.
  • The atmosphere has not held this much Carbon for at least 420,000 years according to data from ice cores.

http://www.ucar.edu/ (The National Center for Atmospheric Research)

cycling of matter9

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen in atmosphere

Plants

Assimilation

Denitrifying bacteria

Nitrates (NO3-)

Nitrogen – fixingbacteria in rootnodules oflegumes

Decomposers (aerobic & anaerobic bacteria and fungi)

Nitrifying bacteria

Ammonification

Nitrites (NO2-)

Ammonium (NH4+)

Nitrogen – fixing bacteria in soil

cycling of matter10

Part 3: Cycling of Matter

Cycling of Matter

Nitrogen Cycle

  • Nitrogen comprises the bulk of the atmosphere (approximately 78%).
  • Most of it is unusable.
    • A molecule of nitrogen gas is made up of 2 atoms very tightly bound together.
    • It takes tremendous amounts of energy, such as produced by lightning or fires, to break the bond.
  • Bacteria can release nitrogen from organic material
    • These bacteria also release nitrogen from organic material back into the atmosphere.
  • Nitrogen is the one element found almost entirely in the atmosphere—there's very little on land or in the sea.
  • Nitrogen is essential to life, a key element in proteins and DNA.