international contacts and conflicts 1914 1999 n.
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International Contacts and Conflicts, 1914-1999. CHAPTER 28 . Key Events. World War I 1914-1918 Russian Revolution 1917 Period of United States Isolation 1919-1939 Great Depression 1929-1939 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria 1931 Nazi Rise to Power 1933

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key events
Key Events
  • World War I 1914-1918
  • Russian Revolution 1917
  • Period of United States Isolation 1919-1939
  • Great Depression 1929-1939
  • Japanese Invasion of Manchuria 1931
  • Nazi Rise to Power 1933
  • Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
  • World War II Begins 1939
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939
  • Formation of Axis Powers 1940
key events cont
Key Events Cont.
  • Fall of France 1940
  • Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor 1941
  • German invasion of Soviet Union 1941
  • Invasion of France by Allies 1944
  • U.S. drops Atom Bomb on Japan 1945
  • End of WWII 1945
  • United Nations established 1945
  • Cold War begun between 1947

United States and U.S.S.R.

more key events
More Key Events
  • Formation of NATO 1949
  • Korean War 1950-1953
  • Diminution of Cold War 1960
  • Cuban missile Crisis 1963
  • U.S. and Vietnam War 1964-1973
  • End of Cold War 1989
pre world war i
Pre World War I
  • Sense of Internationalization was present that was also countered by the presence of rising Nationalization.
  • For example in 1894 the Geneva Convention established the Red Cross(international agency for humanitarian service in wartime).
  • Internationalization led to a World Court that was established in Hague rules on conflicts in areas of economic rights and boundary questions.
  • Helps Facilitate World Trade
  • International Mailing system
  • Held a unified treatment of P.O.W.’s and a standard set of rules for war.
  • Relied heavily on Western dominance and control of empires.
  • Nationalism was also rising at the same time.
  • Led to fierce competition between rival nations in the Olympic Games, originally an international forum.



causes cont
Causes Cont.
  • Social tensions were relieved by military growth such as battleship building rivalry between Britain and Germany.
  • Most of the world’s available territory had already been carved up.
  • Alliances between nations were forged as Austria and Serbia were brought to war by the death of Archduke Ferdinand
the opposing forces in the great war
The Opposing Forces in The Great War
  • Triple Entente- alliance between France, Britain, and Russia.
  • Italy, Japan, and the United States later joined the war.
  • Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
  • Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria later joined, as Italy left.

The Allies

Central Powers

major fronts of european war
Major Fronts of European War
  • Eastern Front- took place in the western portions of Russia, also spread to the Balkans where Austria crushed Serbia. In this front German Armies fought Russian Forces. This is where most of the fighting took place.
  • Western Front- Northern France, was full of trenches that prevented advancing forces. Was where German troops fought against French and British Defenders.
other fronts of war
Other Fronts of War
  • Italian Front– developed between the Italians and the Austrians due to Italian wanting more territory
  • Naval Front- German surface fleet was held back by the British for most of the war, but German Submarines played havoc for most of the war.
  • Submarine Warfare- was about German attacking U.S. Ships bringing people and supplies to Britain. This led to America’s entry into the war in 1970.
advances during wwi
Advances During WWI
  • Introduction of: Artillery, Flamethrowers, Machine guns, barbed-wire fence, and the use of poison gas.
  • Tanks were introduced in 1915, but was then was brought up again in larger more advanced sums in WWII
  • Mobile X-Ray machines, Blood transfusions, organ transplants, and new drugs, and discover of DNA.
how the war affected the world
How the War Affected the World
  • Led to growth of Government. Ex. Industrial Sectors like railroads were controlled by U.S. Government.
  • The executive branch in Government took over parliamentary to the extent that in Germany, a top general ran the country.
  • Media Was Censored creating British, American, and German Propaganda.
  • Even spying took hold new hold, Mata Hari, for example was executed by the French because they thought she was spying for the Germans.
the war outside of europe
The War Outside of Europe
  • Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were brought into the war due to British Alliance.
  • The war also made the U.S. a major world power, however was not taking a side due to disagreement of which side was correct, but profited from the war by selling goods.
  • In 1917, the States joined the war due to Germans attacking American naval ships.
  • With the Americans, the tide turned for the Triple Entente.
combatants in africa asia and the middle east
Combatants in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East
  • The war used Africans by the French Against the Germans that led to the introduction of the Pan-African Nationalist Congress in 1919.
  • Japan and China also joined the war Declaring war on Germany which led to a prominent Japanese role in Chinese land.
  • The Ottomans joined Germany, which weakened the Ottoman Empire.
  • Led to Europe’s decrease influence and power in the world.
world war i losses
World War I Losses
  • At the end of the war, the number of known dead was placed at about 10 million men and the wounded at about 20 million.
  • The direct cost of was about $180 Billion, and indirect cost at $151.612 billion
the war s end
The War's End
  • Russia. In March 1917, a revolution toppled the tsarist government.
  • Led to the Brest-Litovsk Treaty where Germany gained more land than necessary, overextended Germany, in return for peace in Russia.
  • A new civilian government was emplaced to blame in Germany, which was led by socialists who then had no other option but to sue for peace in November 1918.
peace and the following
Peace and the Following…
  • All the Victors of War met at Versailles, where they debated the fate of Europe and the rest of the world, Germany, and Russia were not represented.
  • Led to the creation of the League of Nations by Woodrow Wilson, that was to deal with future disputes and make war unnecessary.
  • Isolationism was prominent in America, that led to fears of the future…
  • Japan took over much of China.
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed as nationalist uprisings carved out new nations.
peace and aftermath cont
Peace and Aftermath cont.
  • Germany lost much of its territory as Poland was revived, and to France as well.
  • Germany was also blamed for the cause of the war, and faced large reparation payment to the Allies. What do you think this led to?
  • Russia became communist after its revolution in 1917, lost much of its territory, and was also ignored in the treaty of Versailles.
true effects of the war to end all wars
True effects of the War to End all Wars
  • It weakened Europe by the loss of more than 10 Million person.
  • France and Serbia lost more than ten percent of their population…
  • The population loss meant that there was a lower birth rate.
  • War rampaged the industrial sector, and led to postwar instability that ended momentarily in 1923.
  • Inflation was also a result of this expenditure of government spending.
cont of the effect of the war
Cont. of the Effect of the War
  • Japanese and American businesspeople had gotten into European Export markets which hurt Europe’s recovery.
  • Britain as a result never recovered its export position which it depended on, and the U.S. debts complicated its economy even more.
  • The League of Nations, which Woodrow Wilson wasn’t even a part of, was rendered useless, resulting in diplomacy between nations instead of unions.
  • All disarmament ideas were discussed but only discussed.
causes of the great depression
Causes of the Great Depression
  • New problems in the industrial economy of Europe and the United States.
  • There was inflation in Germany.
  • Great Britain recovered slowly after the war, but lost it’s holding on exports due to American and Japanese traders.
causes of the great depression cont
Causes of the Great Depression Cont.
  • Farmers in the western world faced chronic overproduction of food.
  • The mixture of American borrowing for new farming equipment, European production, combined with European Importation spelled doom.
  • Colonies and non-colonies also suffered as production exceeded the demand.
  • Governments did not provide good leadership after the crisis of the 1920s
the collapse
The Collapse
  • The Depression began formally in October of 1929, when the New York stock market crashed.
  • Stock values fell, which led to the fall of banks which depended heavily on stocks.
  • The ripple effect could even be felt in Austria and Germany.
  • This led to a fall in production of capital goods as much as one third by 1932.
  • It fed on itself as it grew more from 1929 to 1933
the worldwide impact of the crash
The Worldwide Impact of the Crash
  • Almost all nations were affected by the crash, however the U.S.S.R. was busy promoting socialism in one country that cut off all economic ties with other nations.
  • For the rest of the world, production fell and incomes dwindled, greatly impacting unemployment, and all nations that produce foods and raw materials.
  • Japan, Latin America, and Germany were all hit hard with Japanese exports falling 50%, and Nazism taking a role in German.
  • This created a sense of weakness and confusion witin and outside policy circles, all this confusion let to……..

Doesn’t believe in Dong

Believes in Dongism

the pre world war ii concepts
The Pre-World War II Concepts
  • The war broke out in 1939, however, it was beginning throughout all the 1930s.
  • There was military expansion throughout this time period in both Japan and Germany.
  • Suspicion of the USSR was also afoot, making nationalism more and more prominent.
the new players
The New Players
  • Japan rose to become an ultranationalist government with some anti-western ideals and pro nazi-style authoritarian government.
  • Benito Mussolini was like Hitler, a fascist, and was Italian.
  • Adolf Hitler began to change the way Germany was going with the Nation Socialist Party and took power in 1933
the sides of wwii
The Sides of WWII
  • Germany
  • Japan
  • Italy (1940-43)
  • Hungary(1941-45)
  • Romania(1941-1944)
  • Bulgaria(1941-44)
  • Soviet Union(1941-45)
  • United States(1941-45)
  • United Kingdom
  • China(1937-45)
  • France
  • Poland
  • Canada
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • South Africa

The Axis Powers

The Allies

japan in the formation
Japan in the Formation
  • In this era, China was still recovering from its 1911 revolution.
  • Japan began dominating Manchuria since its victory over Russia in 1905.
  • The true takeover of Manchuria was in 1931 when the Japanese army came and claimed it an independent state
  • This resulted in the Japanese withdrawal from the League of Nations.
the nazi s growth
The Nazi’s Growth
  • The National Socialist(Nazi), led by ADOLF HITLER, started to gain strength in the 1920s.
  • Their growth was due to great leadership of Hitler, the economic promises the Nazi party held, and their aggressive foreign policy for expansion
  • When officially in power in 1933 Hitler abolished the parliamentary government and established a totalitarian government.
  • All of this led to a German War Machine that created new jobs, and a strong army. This led Germany out of the Great Depression.
hitler s allies
Hitler’s Allies
  • Hitler did not limit himself only to Germany… He also had some friends.
  • Benito Mussolini was like Hitler, he had an aggressive foreign policy, and dreamed of new nationalist glories.
  • All this formation of alliances could be seen as a trend…
  • A goal of global domination, extreme nationalism, and need of new territory could only result in one thing.
war for dummies
War for Dummies
  • Step 1- Hitler first suspended reparation payments.
  • Step 2- Began rearming Germany.
  • Step 3- Mussolini attacked Ethiopia in 1935.
  • Step 4- Attack Czechoslovakia.
  • Step 5- Munich “Conference”.
  • Step - Start World War 2.
  • Step 6- Take over the world.
the buildup toward ww2
The Buildup toward WW2
  • 1936-Germany joined the Spanish revolution on the side of the authoritarians, gaining military training
  • 1938-Hitler created a union with Austria with the Anschluss.
  • 1938-Munich Conference, prevented war between the Germans, French and British for the moment.
the two areas of conflict
The two areas of Conflict
  • Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany against the United Kingdom, United States, and Soviet Union.
  • From Invasion of Poland in September 1, 1939-May 8th, 1945 V-E Day.
  • Japan, Thailand, Manchukuo Versus the United States, Philippines, Republic of China and United Kingdom.
  • Invasion of Manchuria in September 19th 1931- official surrender of Japan on USS Missouri in Tokyo By in August 15th 1945.

European Front

Pacific Front

the dawn of war in europe
The Dawn of War in Europe
  • 1939-Germany took over all of Czechoslovakia and began taking over Poland
  • September 1, 1939-Hitler’s attack on Poland risked war, but did not begin it.
  • In response, France and Britain were forced to declare war to stop the German war machine.
the atlantic front
The Atlantic Front
  • War was already occurring in China between the Japanese and Chinese armies.
  • 1937-Skirmishes in Beijing between Japanese and Chinese
  • This fighting was unplanned as Japanese war leaders did not want to fight.
  • From that resulted a stalemate until 1945
the dynamic trio
The Dynamic Trio
  • In September 1940, Italy, Germany and Japan signed a Tripartite Pact.
  • This created a formal alliance between Germany and Japan against their true rival… U.S.
  • However, Japan and Germany did not work closely, Japan did not help invade the U.S.S.R.
the european reaction
The European Reaction
  • From 1937-1939 France and Britain were still suffering from WWI, and were uneasy of joining another war.
  • They also did not know whether to join the Soviets or Germany.
  • By 1938 Britain barely began preparing for war, but they were too late…
war in japan
  • Though initial success, in 1942-43 the tide began to turn as more power was growing in the allies.
  • As China was in stalemate with Japan, it turned to European colonies that were exposed due to the distracted Europeans.
  • Japan attacked Indochina from France, then Malaya and Burma…
  • Their next target…. USA.
key battles
Key Battles
  • December 7, 1941- Pearl Harbor
  • May 4-8, 1942- Battle of Coral Sea
  • June 4-7,1942- Battle of Midway
  • February 19-March 26, 1945- Battle of Iwo Jima
  • August 6, 1945- Hiroshima
  • August 9, 1945- Nagasaki
  • 1940-1942 – Battle of Britain
  • Dec. 1944-Jan 1945 – Battle of Bulge
  • June 6, 1944- D-Day
  • July 1942-Feburary 1943- Battle of Stalingrad
  • May 7-8, 1945- Victory in Europe

Pacific Front

European Theatre

battle of hong kong rape of nanking
Battle of Hong Kong & Rape of Nanking
  • July 1937- Japan Attacked the city of Nanking massacring an estimated sum of 300,000 Chinese civilians.
  • December 8-25th 1941- One of the first battles of the Pacific campaigns of WW2, Japan fought British Hong Kong, around 4,000 dead or missing on both sides when the defenders called surrender.
  • By the end of the war several million Chinese civilians and POWs were murdered during the undeclared war.
pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • December 7th, 1941- Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and stirring the Americans.
  • The Japanese were able to stretch this far because they had already taken Malaysia, Burma, and others it had taken during the 1930s.
  • For America, this meant WAR!!!!
germany and its tragic flaw
Germany and its Tragic Flaw
  • The German’s tactic was Blitzkrieg or “lightning war”, involving rapid advancing.
  • After crushing Poland, it set sights on Holland Belgium and France.
  • Massive civilian loss of life occurred as 40,000 lives were lost only in Rotterdam.
britain the last stand
Britain the Last Stand
  • Hitler tried to take apart Britain's Royal Air Force with the Battle of Britain.
  • Winston Churchill used new tactics and great leadership to help prevent the downfall of Britain.
  • Around 3,000 aircrew perished on both sides of the Battle for Britain.
winston churchill
Winston Churchill
  • Sweat and Tears speech by Churchill was given in 4th of June in 1940 .
  • We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender
german tragic mistake
German Tragic Mistake
  • 1942-Siege of Stalingrad was a failed attempt by the Germans to advance into Russia.
  • The Siege of Stalingrad led to the ultimate defeat of the Germans, they made the Russians mad and it led to German defeat in 1945
the result of japan s attack
The Result of Japan’s Attack
  • Late 1941 Brought the U.S. into the war because of Pearl Harbor.
  • American and British forces eventually teamed up against the Germans ins North Africa.
  • From there the moved into the Italian Peninsula killing Mussolini.
  • All of this would spell doom for the Germans then ……
d day beginning of the end
D-Day Beginning of the End
  • June 6th, 1944- Allied troops Invading German held territory in French Coastline.
  • About 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded this day
  • More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 Aircraft supported this strike.

hitler s last reprieve
Hitler’s last Reprieve
  • April 30,1945- Hitler committed Suicide.
  • He left behind a total of 6 million Jews dead due to gas chambers, named the Holocaust.
the end to the pacific terror
The end to the Pacific Terror
  • Late 1941-U.S. entered the war.
  • June 4-7,1942- Battle of Midway, was a major battle that resulted in a tactical loss for the Americans, but new territory.
  • February 19-March 26, 1945- Battle of Iwo Jima, helped make a crucial landing strip, resulted in massive loss of life about 50,000 were killed or injured on both sides over a period of a month.
  • This led to…..
hiroshima and nagasaki
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • August 6, 1945- Hiroshima
  • August 9, 1945- Nagasaki
  • Both helped lead to the unconditional surrender of the Japanese Empire.
  • Resulted in the death of 220,000 people.
  • Japan surrendered six days later.
  • Now the world knew of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
the aftermath
The Aftermath
  • The main result was the United Nations or UN, which replaced the inefficient League of Nations.
  • By this, the USSR was represented along with China.
  • Internationalism was taking its next step into all regions of the world, not just the West.
the conferences
The Conferences
  • December 1, 1943- Teheran Conference, was a strategy meeting between Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill.
  •  February 4–11, 1945- Yalta Conference, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin discussing post-war organization
  • July 1945- Potsdam Conference, Soviet Union, the UK, and US gathering to decide the fate of the soon defeated Axis powers.
v e day
V-E Day
  • May 8th, 1945
  • This day is the day that the Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany at the end of Hitler’s Third Reich.
  • The unconditional surrender of Germany was signed at Rheims on May 7th, 1945
v j day
V-J Day
  • Tokyo Bay, USS Missouri, August 14th, 1945
  • The formal surrender of Japan accepted by General Douglas MacArthur from Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu.
the ussr s power
The USSR’s Power
  • Russia after the Second Great War began to occupy much of east Europe.
  • Poland , Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary were it’s new playground.
  • This great expansion and power was nothing the previous Tsars ever dreamed of.
the conflict
The Conflict
  • It was Soviet Russia and its allies against Britain, the United States and theirs.
  • Germany was at the beginning the focal point of the cold war, whether or not it would become a slave to the Russians or be free.
  • “Tear down this wall!!”-Ronald Reagan in respond to the USSR
the european response to russia
The European Response to Russia
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in 1949 as a response to Communism
  • NATO even rearmed the Germans to prevent the Russian advance.
  • All of this division would have to lead to an….
the russian s new weapon
The Russian’s New Weapon
  • 1949- The Soviet Union developed is own atomic bomb
  • From this point on until the 1980s, the US and USSR were in an ARMS RACE.
  • Now, not only the US had Nukes, but so did the rest of the world and their worst enemy.
effects on the rest of world
Effects on the Rest of World
  • Due to the fear of Communist advance, tensions rose in the Asian hemisphere in the 1950s
  • Missiles were placed in Cuba by the Russian
  • Alliances were formed with noncommunist Nations of New Zealand, Australia and US.
  • The US was on the war against communism.
cuban dilema
Cuban Dilema
  • April 17th, 1961- Bay of Pigs, an unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba as a CIA attack on Fidel Castro
  • October 1962-Cuban missile Crisis, This was a major conflict between the Soviet Union and Cuba against the United States.
the problem of vietnam
The problem of Vietnam
  • November 1st, 1955- April 30th,1975
  • Occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
  • North Vietnam fought with the Communist allies agianst the South Vietnamese Government supported by the United States.
  • Between 1 million to 4 million lives were lost.
the cooldown
The Cooldown
  • During the 1980s, Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev were key players in the downturn of this event
  • They both cut military spending, and was caused partly by the economic crisis that was felt in Russia.
  • With an agreement in 1989 between USA and USSR over Satellite states, this was the beginning of peace.
  • This peace was Finalized in the end of the USSR in 1991.
the 90 s and onward
The 90’s and Onward
  • Features of this new era:
  • US had no Rivals.
  • Regional conflicts remained after US involvement
  • Rise of Islam, Reassertion of regional Identities
  • Empasis on Regional but Supranational trading blocs. Ex NAFTA.
  • Economic Success in US and West Europe led to new commercial policies.