PENNY LAB A Guide to Completing Your Scientific Method Booklet!
Introduction: The first set of slides shows what each page of the booklet needs; The second set of slides gives examples. --They have different background color.
Pg 2 = Problem Statement,Research, Hypothesis Pg 3 = Proce- dure Cover Pg 4 = Data, Observa-tions & Sketches Pg 6 & 7 = Conclusion “RERUN” Pg 5 = Analysis (Graphs & Inferences) Pg 8 = Back Cover, “extra space”
Slide 1 of 1 PENNY LAB – Title Page needs… Title– that relates to the lab Your Name Partner’s Name Section Due Date(to be determined)
PENNY LAB – Page 2 Slide 1 of 2 Problem Statement = what you’re trying to figure out RESEARCH = background info to understand the lab At least 3 facts & 2 different citations.Citation needs name of article and name of website
PENNY LAB – Page 2 con’t Slide 2 of 2 HYPOTHESIS = independent variable manipulated variable If (=what’s changed) then dependent variable responding variable (=what’s measured) because(briefly explain why). If [I do this],then[this will happen]because[of this reasoning].
PENNY LAB – Page 3 Slide 1 of 2 PROCEDURE always needs… Safety = what do we need to be careful with/about? Operational Definition = how will the dependent/respondingvariable be measured? Set-up Sketch = toshow how equipment was set up for the lab Clean up = what do you have to do to clean up?
PROCEDURE Extra Credit • Write a procedure for the experiment we did in class. • Numbered list • Start each step with a verb • Make sure it can be followed! • Up to 4 pts. EC • Write on a separate sheet, put in booklet Slide 2 of 2
PENNY LAB – Page 4 Slide 1 of 1 DATA & Collaboration Data Tables = one w/your data; one w/collaboration data from 3 other groups Observations = write down at least 2 things you noticed during the experiment Sketch/es= at least one; it should support your observations; 1 picture can be worth a 1000 words
PENNY LAB – Page 5 Slide 1 of 1 ANALYSIS is all about… Graphs = 2, one using your data; the other uses collaboration data X-axis = independent or manipulated variable Y-axis = dependent or responding variable Inferences = write down what you can figure out from your graphs Collaboration = ALWAYSwrite about your collaboration data as well as your own data!!
PENNY LAB – Pages 6 & 7 Slide 1 of 3 CONCLUSION= “RERUN” Restate Explain the procedure Report the Results Uncertainties or Errors New Things Discovered, Extensions
PENNY LAB – Pages 6 & 7 Slide 2 of 3 CONCLUSION= “RERUN” Restate = your problem question Explain the procedure = summarize what you did; include variables & op. defn. Report the Results = tell how your results and inferences support or reject your hypothesis; be sure to use collaboration data! This is always worth a lot of points because this is where you show your THINKING and that you understood what happened
PENNY LAB – Pages 6 & 7 Slide 3 of 3 CONCLUSION…continued Uncertainties or Errors* = what are some things that affected your results? Corrections? What could you have done better? New Things Discovered*, Extensions* = new information or knowledge gained; interesting or cool/funAlso, how could the experiment be taken further? New questions * at least 2!
PENNY LAB – Page 8 Slide 1 of 1 The Back Cover You can use this if you need more room for any of the other pages. – OR – it can be the back cover!Have some fun and be creative, but never leave it blank!! (Does NOT need to be titled or defined!!)
Next are the sample pages. Remember, you must DEFINE the step, and then DO the step!** (red type = hints and reminders from me! ) ** Except for the title page and back cover
Pg 1 / Cover Slide 1 of 1 Penny Lab Mrs. Spiegel Partner: Harvey the Hawk Section: 7-A Due: Sept. 31, 2010
Problem Statement=what I’m trying to figure outHow many drops fit on a penny? Pg 2 Slide 1 of 2 Hypothesis (format) If(independent/manipulated variable)… then(dependent/responding variable)… because(briefly explain why). My Hypothesis If pennies made of different metals have water dropped on them,thenharder pennies will hold less dropsbecausethe harder metals will make the water splash more. (= variable you are testing) (= variable you measure)
Pg 2 Slide 2 of 2 Research = background info Copper has a hardness of 3.2-3.5; zinc has a hardness of 2.5; steel is 7 Citation: Mohs scale of mineral hardness; wikipedia.org From 1793 – 1837, the penny was pure copper. For the next 20 years, the penny was bronze, which is copper, tin and zinc. From 1857 – 1863 the cent looked whitish because it was made of copper with 12% nickel. For the next 98 years (1864-1962!) the penny was again bronze, except for 1943. Because of the need for copper during WW II, the cent was zinc-coated steel in 1943. In 1962 the tin was removed from pennies, making them 95% copper and 5% zinc. In 1982 this was changed to 97.5% zinc and 2.5% copper Citation: The Composition of the Cent; usmint.gov
Procedure = always has these 4 parts Pg 3 Slide 1 of 2 Safety= be careful about…. -- wear goggles Set-up Sketch: = How the equipment was used Operational Definition = how the dependent/responding variable is measured number of drops will be one less than overflow • Clean up= what needs to be done at the end of the lab • Wipe down table • Return flasks & other equipment to back counter (What’s missing from this sketch? Hint: it’s a good way to include your controls!)
PROCEDURE Extra Credit Write a procedure for the experiment we did in class. Numbered list Start each step with a verb Make sure it can be followed! Up to 4 pts. EC Write on a separate sheet, put in booklet Pg 3 Slide 2 of 2
Data & Collaboration Pg 4 Slide 1 of 1 = includes data tables, observations & sketches Observations: My Group’s Data I didn’t think water would pile up and make such a big mound on a penny! The 3 pennies really looked different from each other (Use a ruler!!) Collaboration Data 1943 1963 1984 (OK, so I “cheated” b/c this is PowerPoint and I used Google to find pictures instead of making sketches… )
Collaboration Graph (drops) Analysis Pg 5 Slide 1 of 1 = graphs & inferences My Group’s Graph (drops) (Use graph paper!!) Inferences: Both graphs show that the 1943 penny held the most drops, the 1984 held the second highest number of drops and the 1963 penny held the least amount of drops. It can be inferred that the 1943 penny holds more water than the 1963 or 1984 pennies. (Use graph paper!!)
Pgs 6 & 7 Slide 1 of 4 Conclusion = “RERUN” Restate = problem question How many drops can fit on a penny? Explain the procedure= summary with variables and operational definition Water was dropped onto pennies made of different metals. The number of drops it took to flood the penny was recorded to see if harder metals held more water. (Notice how I included the variables and op defn in my sentences) (You will use 2 pages for the conclusion; I will need 4 slides!)
Conclusion (continued) Pgs 6 & 7 Slide 2 of 4 Report the Results = show how results support or reject hypothesis All the graphs show that the 1943 penny held the most drops. This data does not support the hypothesis because the 1943 is the hardest penny. It is steel. The research said zinc is a softer metal than copper and copper is softer than steel. I now understand that the “softness” of a metal does not seem to “cushion” the drops. Instead, all the data shows that the harder pennies held more drops.
Conclusion (continued) Pgs 6 & 7 Slide 3 of 4 • Uncertainties or Errors= things that affect results; improvements • We had a hard time keeping the pipette at 2 cm.; using a ruler would have helped. • We needed to be more steady because sometimes we jiggled the paper towel and the water spilled off the penny. • Sometimes the drops came out too fast because we squeezed the dropper too hard. (At least 2!!)
Conclusion (continued) Pgs 6 & 7 Slide 4 of 4 New Things Discovered, Extensions= new information or knowledge; what’s next? Metals have different hardness. Pennies are made from different metals. Iam glad we got to decide which variable we wanted to use in our experiment. What would it be like to compare silver dollars with nickels? Would heads be different from tails? What about different sides? (At least 2!!)
Back Cover (can be used as extra room for any step, or as a back cover! Never leave it empty!) Pg 8 Slide 1 of 1 (Does NOT need to be titled or defined!!) Science ROCKS!