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Students will explore aspects of the criminal mind. Unit 8: Forensic Psychology. Serial killer, mass murderer, spree killer: Is there a difference? The primary aim of criminal profiling is to reveal the behavioral make-up of an unknown offender.*

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Serial killer, mass murderer, spree killer: Is there a difference?

  • The primary aim of criminal profiling is to reveal the behavioral make-up of an unknown offender.*
  • *reference:
  • Cerebrum
  • Cerebellum
  • Brainstem
  • Dura Mater
  • Pia Mater
  • Arachnoid mater
  • hemorrhage
  • Psychometrics
  • Serial killer
  • mass murderer
  • spree killer
  • Signature Behaviors
  • Signature Aspects
  • Psychopathology
  • Antecedent
  • PET scan
  • MRI
  • Polygraph
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Subdural hematoma
  • Epidural hematoma
obj 1 nervous system
Obj. 1: Nervous System
  • Major organs of the nervous system:
    • Brain
      • Cerebrum: grey & white matter, personality, front & top of brain.
      • •Determining Intelligence
      • •Determining Personality
      • •Thinking
      • •Perceiving
      • •Producing and Understanding Language
      • •Interpretation of Sensory Impulses
      • •Motor Function
      • •Planning and Organization
      • •Touch & Sensation
obj 1 nervous system1
Obj. 1: Nervous System

Cerebellum: ‘hind brain’, motor control, coordination

obj 1 nervous system2
Obj. 1: Nervous System

Lobes: The cerebrum is divided into 4 lobes, each are paired. The lobes perform specific functions.

obj 1 nervous system3
Obj. 1: Nervous System

In the Brain:

Brainstem: base of the brain, nerve connection pathways, sleep cycle, breathing, heart rate

obj 1 nervous system4
Obj. 1: Nervous System
  • Major organs of the nervous sytem:
    • Spinal Cord: three major functions: pathway for motor information away from brain, pathway for sensory information towards the brain, and as a center for coordinating certain reflexes
obj 2 membranes of the ns
Obj. 2: Membranes of the NS
  • Three layers of Meninges in the NS
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater
obj 2 meninges of the ns
Obj. 2 Meninges of the NS
  • Three types of hemorrhages can occur with reference to the meninges of the NS.
    • A subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • A subdural hematoma
    • An epidural hematoma
obj 2 meninges of the ns1
Obj. 2 Meninges of the NS
  • An epidural hematoma similarly may arise after an accident or spontaneously. It results from a traumatic brain injury (TBI) where a build up of blood occurs between the dura mater and the skull.
obj 2 meninges of the ns2
Obj. 2 Meninges of the NS
  • A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood located in a separation of the arachnoid from the dura mater. The small veins which connect the dura mater and the arachnoid are torn, usually during an accident, and blood can leak into this area.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is acute bleeding under the arachnoid; can occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma.

obj 3 identify and describe offender profiling methods
  • Criminal profiling is a process known by the FBI as criminal investigative analysis.
  • Criminal profiling consists of analyzing a crime scene and using the information to determine the identity of the perpetrator.
  • Profilers, or criminal investigative analysts, are highly trained and experienced law enforcement officers who study every behavioral aspect and detail of an unsolved violent crime scene
obj 3 background
Obj. 3 Background
  • Profiling uses the facts to develop a theory about the crime.
  • Traditional police work first developed a theory, then used the facts.
  • Contrast these two methods. Is one better than the other? Why? Is there no significant difference between the two? Why?
obj 3 background1
Obj. 3 Background
  • Behavior
    • A person’s behavior is their expression of their thoughts, feelings and emotions.
    • Past behavior predicts future behavior
obj 3 background2
Obj. 3 Background
  • Signature Behaviors:
    • Signature behaviors are those acts committed by an offender that are not necessary to complete the offense.
      • can be used to suggest an offender’s psychological or emotional needs (signature aspect).
      • best understood as a reflection of the underlying personality, lifestyle, and developmental experiences of an offender.*
obj 3 background3
Obj. 3 Background
  • Signature Aspects:
    • The emotional or psychological themes or needs that an offender satisfies when they commit offense behaviors.*
  • Example:
obj 3 background m o modus operandi
Obj. 3 Background:M.O. Modus Operandi
  • The M.O. is a learned behaviorthat is dynamic and malleable. Developed over time, the M.O. continuously evolves as offenders gain experience and confidence. Offenders refine their M.O’s as they learn from the mistakes that lead to their arrests.
obj 3 crime scene analysis
Obj. 3 Crime Scene Analysis
  • The FBI’s Crime Scene Analysis consists of six steps
    • 1. Profiling inputs
    • 2. Decision process models
    • 3. Crime assessment
    • 4. Criminal profile
    • 5. The investigation
    • 6. The apprehension
1 profiling inputs
1. Profiling Inputs
  • This is basically a collection of all evidence, including anything found on the scene (i.e., fibers, paint chips etc.) and anything derived from the crime scene (i.e., photographs, investigator notes, measurements, etc.).
2 decision process models
2. Decision Process Models
  • Evidence is arranged to locate any types of patterns, such as whether or not the crime is part of a series of crimes, what the victims have in common, etc
3 crime assessment
3. Crime Assessment
  • Now that the evidence has been organized, the crime scene is reconstructed. Investigators use patterns to determine what happened in what order, and what role each victim, weapon, etc. had in the crime.
4 criminal profile
4. Criminal Profile
  • The combined first three steps are used to create a criminal profile incorporating the motives, physical qualities, and personality of the perpetrator. Also, the investigators use this information to decide on the best way to interview the suspects based on their personality.
5 the investigation
5. The Investigation
  • The profile is given to investigators on the case and to organizations that may have data leading to the identification of a suspect. The profile may be reassessed if no leads are found or if new information is learned.
6 the apprehension
6. The Apprehension
  • Only occurs in about 50% of cases. When a suspect is identified, he/she is interviewed, investigated, compared to the profile, etc. If the investigators have reason to believe that the suspect is the perpetrator, a warrant is obtained for the arrest of the individual, usually followed by a trial with expert witnesses including the forensic psychologist and other forensic experts, including those involved in the crime scene analysis.
obj 4 testing used to study the criminal mind
Obj. 4 Testing Used to Study the Criminal Mind
  • Psychometrics
    • Psychometrics deals with the scientific measurement of individual differences (personality and intelligence).
    • It attempts to measure the psychological qualities of individuals and use that knowledge to make predictions about behaviour
obj 4 testing psychometrics
Obj. 4 Testing: Psychometrics
  • A test can be described as an objective, systematic and standardised measure of a sample of behaviour.
    • A. Objectivity is where every observer of an event would produce an identical account of what took place.
    • B. Systematic refers to a methodical and consistent approach to understanding an event.
    • C. Standardised means observations of an event are made in a prescribed manner.
    • D. An assessment refers to the entire process of collating information about individuals and subsequently using it to make predictions.
obj 4 testing types of tests
Obj. 4 Testing: Types of Tests
  • There are two general categories of tests, those that test for cognitive ability (i.e. intelligence quotient) and those that test for personality
  • Cognitive assessment tests attempt to measure an individual’s ability to process information from their environment.
test of cognitive ability
Test of Cognitive Ability
  • Cognitive tests will be given either individually or in a group setting.
  • Three different types of cognitive tests (collectively known as maximum performance tests):
    • Speed test.
    • Power test.
    • Knowledge test.
  • I.Q. tests typically employ all three when estimating an I.Q. score
tests of personality measures
Tests of Personality Measures
  • A. Personality measures are more concerned with people's dispositions to behave in certain ways in certain situations.
obj 4 tests of personality measures
Obj. 4 Tests of Personality Measures
  • There are two forms of personality test:
    • 1. Objective personality tests—Individuals are asked to rate their own actions or feelings in set situations.
    • 2. Projective tests—Individuals are asked to formulate an unstructured response to some form of ambiguous stimuli e.g. Rorschach ink-blot test.
obj 4 problems with psychometric tests
Obj. 4 Problems with Psychometric Tests
  • 1.Social Desirability – when faced with a psychometric test many people feel they are being judged and so alter their answers accordingly.
  • 2. People might engage in social desirability for two reasons:
    • a. Self-deception – individuals are overly optimistic in their perceptions of their own positive personality features and play down their perceived negative aspects.
    • b. Impression management – individuals try to appear ‘nice’ because they fear social disapproval.
obj 4 problems with psychometric tests1
Obj. 4 Problems with Psychometric Tests
  • 3. Mood seems to play a part in how people go about performing in tests, especially those concerning personality.
    • A. People in a good mood might answer the questionnaire completely differently than if they were in a bad mood.
    • B. Features of the environment (noise, heat & light) also have an impact on our moods and our cognitive abilities.
  • 4. If a test is not relevant to an individual’s lifestyle an individual probably will not perform well at it.
obj 4 problems with psychometric tests2
Obj. 4 Problems with Psychometric Tests
  • 5. Possibility of bias in tests against members of ethnic subgroups of the population, e.g. newly arrived immigrants will have difficulty with an intelligence test which asks them to name past leaders of the country to which they have recently immigrated.
    • Most standardised psychometric tests are based on western definitions and western cultural practices.
    • Attempts have been made to develop culture-free tests of intelligence, but on the whole these attempts have not been successful. This is due to several factors:
    • Conceptions of intelligence vary widely from culture to culture. Even if the content of a test can be made culture-free, culture itself will still affect the results through directing attitudes towards tests, test-taking, competition, and so on.
obj 5 pet scans mri s
Obj. 5 PET Scans & MRI’s
  • Two types of technical instruments are used to diagnose brain abnormalities
obj 5 pet scans
Obj. 5 PET Scans
  • PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomograpghy)
    • 1. A diagnostic imaging tool, it made it possible for physicians to receive clear data about the body’s biochemical functioning, information that was previously gathered through exploratory surgery.
  • Positron Emission Technology is based on molecular biology – what is happening at the cellular level.
  • The PET scan shows the metabolism of the targeted area.
obj 5 pet scans1
Obj. 5 PET Scans
  • One of the greatest benefits of PET technology is its use in treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and other dementias. Additionally, PET scanning is able to produce images for a number of diseases that affect the brain such as post-traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, and movement disorders.
obj 5 mri
Obj. 5 MRI
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) A MRI is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions.
  • MRI imaging uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone, and virtually all other internal structures.
  • MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).
obj 5 mri1
Obj. 5 MRI
  • Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly in the brain) in routine clinical practice.
  • Physicians also use the MRI examination to document brain abnormalities in patients
obj 5 brain abnormalities abnormal psychology
Obj. 5 Brain Abnormalities & Abnormal Psychology
  • Brain Abnormalities
  • 1. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) of men who have antisocial personality disorder have 11% less gray matter and is less active than men with a “normal” brain.
  • PFC is known to inhibit the limbic system, which is an area of the brain that gives rise to emotions.
  • PET scans show increased activity in the thalamus, amygdale, and the limbic system by 6% compared to a “normal” brain. All of these areas control basic emotions such as aggression, sexual desire, and anger. Increased activity in these regions would suggest stronger emotion.
obj 5 brain abnormalities abnormal psychology1
Obj. 5 Brain Abnormalities & Abnormal Psychology
  • Brain Abnormalities
  • 2. Corpus callosum— the activity of the corpus callosum, which is the bridge that links the two sides of the brain, was 18% less active in murderers than in a “normal” brain.
obj 5 brain abnormalities abnormal psychology2
Obj. 5 Brain Abnormalities & Abnormal Psychology
  • Genetics/Environment
  • 1. Genetic abnormalities and parents with antisocial behavior.
  • 2. Birth and pregnancy complications.
  • 3. Drinking alcohol and heavy cigarette smoking during pregnancy.
  • 4. Chemical ingestion (i.e., cocaine, lead, other drugs)
obj 5 brain abnormalities abnormal psychology3
Obj. 5 Brain Abnormalities & Abnormal Psychology
  • 5. Traumatic brain injury.
  • 6. Electrocution.
  • 7. Tumors.
  • 8. Extreme environmental exposures (gasses, radiation).
  • 9. Nutritional deficiencies.
obj 6 polygraph machine
  • 1. Polygraph machines, commonly called "lie detectors," are instruments that monitor a person's physiological reactions.
  • These instruments do not, as their nickname suggests, detect lies.
  • They can only detect whether deceptive behavior is being displayed.
obj 6 polygraph machine1
Obj. 6 Polygraph Machine
  • 2. History of Polygraph Machines
    • A.1730: English writer Daniel Defoe suggests taking a person's pulse may be a way to detect whether they're telling the truth during questioning.
    • B.1892: English physician Sir James Mackenzie develops a pen-trace polygraph for making medical measurements of a person's heart rate.
    • C.1895: Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso uses a crude polygraph to measure a suspect's blood pressure and pulse during questioning.
    • D.1921: Canadian-born psychologist John Larson invents the original polygraph while working in Berkeley, California.
    • E.1924: Used in police interrogation.
obj 6 polygraph machine2
Obj. 6 Polygraph Machine
  • How a Polygraph Test Works
  • 1. A polygraph is a machine that measures various different aspects of how a person's body is functioning and draws them as side-by-side lines on a moving paper chart.
  • 2. Each measurement is shown by a separate line (graph) and that's why the chart of multiple lines is called a polygraph: it's a many-lined graph.
  • 3. The measurements are of physiological (basic, body-related) things such as heartbeat, pulse, blood pressure, respiration rate, and perspiration, as well as body movement
obj 6 polygraphy
Obj. 6 Polygraphy
  • On the previous slide picture, the “NEW” data line isn’t there
  • The “new” equipment are two motion detecting pads. One you sit on, the other you place both your feet flat onto it.
  • This detects ANY type of motion, so now, unless you are a psychopath, you will not be able to deceive the polygrapher.
obj 6 polygraph machine3
Obj. 6 Polygraph Machine
  • 4.All these can be measured relatively easily; perspiration, for example, is found through what's called galvanic skin response (GSR), which is simply how much your fingertips allow small electric currents to pass over their surface (if they're moist with sweat, they conduct electricity better than normal).
  • 5.Why these particular measurements and not others? Because these things change quickly and detectably when a person starts lying and suddenly feels under great stress. Physiological things like this are difficult for most people to control quickly, consciously, and voluntarily
obj 6 polygraph machine4
Obj. 6 Polygraph Machine
  • Taking a Polygraph
    • 1. A person takes a polygraph test by sitting in a chair and being hooked up to the various body sensors.
    • 2.Usually there's a preliminary period of chat or discussion to help the subject (the person under test) to relax.
obj 6 polygraph machine5
Obj. 6 Polygraph Machine
  • Taking a Polygraph
    • 3.During the examination itself, the tester asks the subject a variety of different questions such as "What is your name?." This type of question will be answered truthfully. Other questions such as "Did you ever skip school?," "Have you ever stolen money?," "Have you ever cheated on a test?," will force the subject to lie.
    • 4.For these questions, the tester knows whether the subject is telling the truth or lying so the responses are used as a baseline or point of comparison: they show how the subject normally reacts when they tell the truth or lie.
obj 6 polygraph machine6
Obj. 6 Polygraph Machine
  • Taking a Polygraph
    • 5.In between these questions, the tester will ask a number of real questions about the particular crime or other situation that is being investigated.
    • 6.At the end of the examination, the tester compares the traces from each real question with those from the baseline questions. In theory, true responses and lies show up quite differently on the trace and are relatively easy to spot.
obj 6 polygraph human physiology
Obj. 6 Polygraph & Human Physiology
  • 1. Human beings are conditioned to believe that lying is morally and biblically wrong.
  • 2. They do not like to lie but do so consciously or unconsciously when they are under pressure.
  • 3. Lying produces nervousness and anxiety. These two conditions in turn produce distinct physiological effects that are sometimes visible and most often measurable
obj 6 polygraph human physiology1
Obj. 6 Polygraph & Human Physiology
  • 4. The physiological effects of lying include:
    • A. An increase in breathing rate accompanied by a decrease in the depth of each breath, also known as shallow breathing. The pneumograph aspect of the polygraph measures these effects.
    • B. An increase in blood pressure and pulse rate. The cardiograph aspect measures these vital signs.
    • C. An increase in sweating. The galvanograph aspect measures the difference in the electrical resistance of the skin as the subject sweats under pressure. Electrical conductivity increases with an increase in sweating due to the electrolyte concentration found in perspiration. It does not measure the amount of sweat directly.
obj 6 polygraph human physiology2
Obj. 6 Polygraph & Human Physiology
  • 5. Mind over matter—can a Polygraph Test be beat?
    • A. There have been ways identified to “cheat” a polygraph test by controlling the mental and physiological behaviors of the body.
  • However, with the motion detection pads, an FBI polygrapher has stated that “unless you are a psychopath, you cannot deceive the machine.” The skill now lies with the administer of the test to ask the right questions.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer
  • Definition of a serial killer
    • 1.Murder has been defined by the Oxford dictionary as "the unlawful killing of a human being by another." The definition of Serial Killings on the other hand, is not so simple to define, for it takes on many different forms, and is brought on by many different states of mind.
    • 2. A serial killer has motivation and motives but rarely kill for money or personal revenge. Instead, they do it for the thrill, sexual satisfaction and/or dominance they achieve in their own world.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer1
  • Profile of a serial killer
    • 1.Most are white males in their twenties or thirties, who target strangers near their homes or places of work.
    • 2.88% of serial killers are male, 85% are Caucasian, and the average age when they claim their first victim is usually around 28.5.
    • 3.In terms of victim selection, 62% of the killers target strangers exclusively, and another 22% kill at least one stranger.
    • 4.71% of the killers operate in a specific location or area, rather than traveling distances to commit their crimes.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer2
  • 5.Before the F.B.I classifies someone as a serial killer, the person must first complete 3 separate murders, that are spaced by a duration they call "the cooling off period" which can vary from a few days to years.
  • 6.Serial killers have a particular method to their killings, e.g., Wayne Gacy, had the trade mark of gagging victims with their own underwear so that they would die in their own vomit.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer childhood history
Obj. 7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Childhood History
  • To discover what makes a serial killer function, it is necessary to look back into their past, particularly their adolescent life.
  • By looking at many and varied cases, it is evident that virtually all serial killers come from dysfunctional backgrounds involving sexual or physical abuse, drugs or alcoholism and their related problems.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer childhood history1
Obj. 7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Childhood History
  • Many traits that seem to be universal in all these serial killers, though in varied amounts, include disorganized thinking, bipolar mood disorders, a feeling of resentment towards society brought on by their own failings, sexual frustrations, an inability to be social or socially accepted, over bearing parents and a wild imagination that tends to drag them into a fantasy world.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer childhood history2
Obj. 7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Childhood History
  • Three most frequently reported childhood behaviors include:
    • Day dreaming
    • Compulsive masturbation
    • Isolation
  • Detailed, ongoing research by the F.B.I shows that many convicted serial killers enact their crimes because of the incredibly rich, detailed and elaborate violent fantasies (including the act of murder) that have developed in their minds as early as the age of seven and eight.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer childhood history3
Obj. 7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Childhood History
  • What distinguishes killers from ‘normal’ people is that the aggressive day dreams that have been developed as children continue to develop and expand through their adolescence right into adulthood.
  • Through the use of murder and mayhem, the serial killer literally chases his dream. With each successive victim, he attempts to fine tune the act, striving to make his real life experiences as perfect as his fantasy. It will never be as perfect, so killing continues
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer committing the crime
Obj.7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Committing the Crime
  • It has been estimated that 3% of all males in our society could be considered sociopathic.
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer types of serial killers
Obj. 7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Types of Serial Killers
  • Copy Cat Killer, ex. HeribertoSeda
    • A. Someone who is driven by the desire to be acknowledged and feared is the "copy cat".
    • B. They basically set out copying the actions of previously ‘famous’ serial killers who struck terror into people’s hearts.
    • C. It is not so much the celebrity statues they enjoy, but instead the ability to control the lives of thousands of area residents through fear
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer types of serial killers1
Obj.7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Types of Serial Killers
  • Psychotic Killer, ex. Richard Chase
    • A. Most serial killers are not psychotics who have lost touch with reality, but instead psychopaths who are suffering from chronic mental disorders with violent or abnormal social behaviors.
    • B. Only a handful of serial killers are actually psychotics.
    • “Psychosis is a loss of contact with reality, usually including false ideas about what is taking place or who one is (delusions) and seeing or hearing things that aren't there (hallucinations). “
obj 7 the mind of a serial killer types of serial kill
Obj. 7 THE MIND OF A SERIAL KILLER: Types of Serial Kill
  • Sexual Killer, ex. Theodore Bundy
    • A. The most crucial factor in the development of the serial rapist or killer is the role of fantasy.
    • B. The escalation from fantasy to reality in these instances can be attributed to pornography.
    • C. A high proportion of serial killers are ‘highly sexed’ in childhood, and have been known to look into bathrooms through keyholes on females undressing, or initiated sexual games, sometimes amounting to rape.
obj 7 motives of serial killers can include
Obj. 7 Motives of serial killers can include:
  • Power and control: To feel a sense of power and control over their victim. Usually sexually abuse their victim. Ex. Ivan Milat
  • Missionary Killers: Think they are doing society a favor by getting rid of a certain type of people. Ex. Robert Wagner

Visionary Killer: Compelled by delusions.

  • Hedonistic: Kill just for the pleasure of killing. Ex. Matthew James Harris, Alexander Pichushkin
obj 7 profile of a sociopath
Obj. 7 Profile of a Sociopath
  • Glibness and Superficial Charm
  • Manipulative and Conning: They never recognize the rights of others and see their self-serving behaviors as permissible. They appear to be charming, yet are covertly hostile and domineering, seeing their victim as merely an instrument to be used. They may dominate and humiliate their victims.
  • Grandiose Sense of Self: Feels entitled to certain things as "their right."
  • Pathological Lying: Has no problem lying coolly and easily and it is almost impossible for them to be truthful on a consistent basis. Can create, and get caught up in, a complex belief about their own powers and abilities. Extremely convincing and even able to pass lie detector tests.

Lack of Remorse, Shame or Guilt :A deep seated rage, which is split off and repressed, is at their core. Does not see others around them as people, but only as targets and opportunities. Instead of friends, they have victims and accomplices who end up as victims. The end always justifies the means and they let nothing stand in their way.

  • Shallow Emotions :When they show what seems to be warmth, joy, love and compassion it is more feigned than experienced and serves an ulterior motive. Outraged by insignificant matters, yet remaining unmoved and cold by what would upset a normal person. Since they are not genuine, neither are their promises.
  • Incapacity for Love
  • Need for Stimulation :Living on the edge. Verbal outbursts and physical punishments are normal. Promiscuity and gambling are common.
  • Callousness/Lack of Empathy :Unable to empathize with the pain of their victims, having only contempt for others' feelings of distress and readily taking advantage of them.

Poor Behavioral Controls/Impulsive Nature: Rage and abuse, alternating with small expressions of love and approval produce an addictive cycle for abuser and abused, as well as creating hopelessness in the victim. Believe they are all-powerful, all-knowing, entitled to every wish, no sense of personal boundaries, no concern for their impact on others.

  • Early Behavior Problems/Juvenile Delinquency:Usually has a history of behavioral and academic difficulties, yet "gets by" by conning others. Problems in making and keeping friends; aberrant behaviors such as cruelty to people or animals, stealing, etc.
  • Irresponsibility/Unreliability:Not concerned about wrecking others' lives and dreams. Oblivious or indifferent to the devastation they cause. Does not accept blame themselves, but blames others, even for acts they obviously committed.
assignment write a profile for 2 known serial offenders
Assignment: Write a Profile for 2 known serial offenders
  • Each profile should be one page single spaced
  • Write the profile first, turn in notes taken on the information of the apprehended individuals. (since we are researching apprehended individuals)
  • Include your sources (list of sites)
  • One from the U.S., one from another country