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Carbohydrates . Part One: A. Classification B. Digestion & Absorption of CHO. Carbohydrate Is Made by Photosynthesis. CHO. Carbohydrate Classifications. Simple CHO = “Sugars” Monosaccharides: single sugar unit Disaccharides: two sugar units linked together

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carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Part One:

A. Classification

B. Digestion & Absorption of CHO

carbohydrate classifications
Carbohydrate Classifications
  • Simple CHO = “Sugars”
    • Monosaccharides: single sugar unit
    • Disaccharides: two sugar units linked together
  • Complex CHO= Starch, glycogen, fiber
    • Polysaccharides: many sugar units linked together
simple cho sugars
Simple CHO: Sugars
  • Monosaccharides
  • Disaccharides
slide6

condensation

hydrolysis

simple sugars cont
Simple Sugars, Cont.
  • What is sugar good for?
  • When is sugar considered to be “bad?”
slide8
10% recommendation
    • (current U.S. 24%)
  • high sugar diet can change in fat distribution toward central adiposity
  • binge trigger in some, inhibitor in others – highly individual
sugar on the food label
fructose/levulose

glucose/dextrose

honey/invert sugar

fruit juice concentrate

corn syrup

corn sweetener

molasses

raw sugar

turbinado sugar

Sugar on the Food Label
sugar alcohols
Sugar Alcohols
  • E.g. mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol
  • Considered “sugar free” sweeteners, but still almost the same kcals as sugar
  • Sugar free candy -- diarrhea if eaten in excess
a word about lactose milk sugar and lactose intolerance
A word about lactose: milk sugarand lactose intolerance
  • Enzyme lactase splits lactose into glu-gal in the small intestine
  • Lactase deficiency causes trouble digesting milk products
carbohydrate classifications1
Carbohydrate Classifications
  • Simple CHO = “Sugars”
    • Monosaccharides: single sugar unit
    • Disaccharides: two sugar units linked together
  • Complex CHO= Starch, glycogen, fiber
    • Polysaccharides: many sugar units linked together
complex cho polysaccharides several to hundreds of units linked together
Complex CHO: Polysaccharides:Several to Hundreds of ____________ Units Linked Together
  • Starch –
  • Glycogen –
  • Fiber –
starch
Starch
  • Long straight or branched chains of hundreds of __________________ units
  • Sources:
    • Richest source:
    • Legumes
    • Tubers
slide17
When eaten, ALL starches are broken down enzymatically to ______________
    • (blue dots!)
  • One to 4 hours after a meal, all starch __________________
glycogen
Glycogen
  • Storage form of CHO in animals. Not found in diet.
  • More complex and more highly branched than starch
  • Limitedcapacity for storage
slide20
Muscle Glycogen
  • Liver Glycogen
fiber
Fiber
  • Typical U.S. diet:
  • Most fibers are polysaccharides but
slide22
Most common fibers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Also gums, mucilages, and lignins
  • Sources:
whole vs refined grains
Whole Vs. Refined Grains
  • Whole grains
  • Label:
slide25
Refined grains
  • Label:
  • Sources:
enriched
“Enriched”
  • When bran and germ are removed, several vitamins/minerals also
  • “enriched,”
  • Shoot for at least half of your grains to be from whole grain sources
soluble vs insoluble fiber
Soluble vs. Insoluble fiber
  • Soluble fiber
    • foods: barley, fruits (apples), legumes, oats, oat bran, rye, seeds, vegetables, nuts
  • Health benefits:
    • lowers serum cholesterol
    • stool bulk/softening
slide31
Insoluble fiber
    • Foods: brown rice/whole grains/wheat bran, fruits, legumes, seeds, veggies
  • Health benefits:
    • Speeds transit through intestines
    • delayed starch hydrolysis: slowed glu absorption
carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

Digestion and absorption of CHO

d a of cho
D&A of CHO
  • Mouth

Salivary amylase

starch

dextrins & maltose

glu-glu-glu-glu-glu-glu

glu-glu-glu-glu-glu-glu-glu-glu-glu x100

glu-glu

slide37
Stomach
    • Mechanical digestion continues in stomach, but
slide38
Small Intestine

Starch and dextrins

Pancreatic amylase

maltose

glu-glu

glu-glu-glu-glu-glu-glu

slide39
Last phase: The brushborder cells of the small intestine.
  • Enzymes in these cells break down ___________________ to _____________________.

(maltase)

maltose

glu & ________

(lactase)

lactose

glu & ________

(sucrase)

glu & ________

sucrose

slide40
Monosaccharides are ABSORBED
    • In liver, fru and gal are converted to glu
    • ____________ then regulates the release of glu back into the bloodstream for transport to tissues.
large intestine colon
Large Intestine (colon)
  • Fiber 
    • (absorbed & used for E, 0-2kcals/g of fiber)
    • (Cellulose and lignin completely pass through in feces)
slide43
So now we have glucose in the liver and the bloodstream. If glu is to fuel the tissues, how is it done?
  • “Glucose-dependent tissues” rely on glucose for fuel (not fat)
    • Brain, nervous system, retina, etc.
  • ***
slide44
Average person enough CHO stored to last ________________ hours
  • Since we can’t store much, need to rely on dietary CHO.