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Chapter Five
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  1. Chapter Five Decline of Classical Civilizations

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa - instability What were the social effects of trade with Mediterranean? Upper Nile Region Kush * 1000 B.C.E. Axum *conquers Kush by 300 B.C.E. Ethiopia *conquers Axum Trade with Mediterranean some converts to Judaism Christianity by 300 C.E. West Africa southern fringe of Sahara regional kingdoms Ghana – 1st great state in W. Africa Decline of Classical Civilizations

  3. Egypt, Kush and Axum

  4. North Africa

  5. East Asia at the End of the Classical Period

  6. What was Shintoism? agriculture well-established by 200 CE regional states, c. 300 C.E. writing introduced 400 C.E. Shintoism organized by 700 C.E. Worship of political leaders & nature (God of Rice) state formation by 600 C.E. Asia ~ Japan

  7. Germanic, Celtic, Slavic peoples loose kingdoms oral culture simple agriculture sailing animistic Northern Europe

  8. Olmecs Legacy of Olmecs Olmec, c. 800–400 B.C.E. no writing Pyramids Agriculture - especially corn potatoes in Andes domestication of animals turkeys, dogs Calendars Disappeared w/out a trace Teotihuacan (Aztecs) Maya - from 400 C.E. South America Ancestors of Inca Peru, Bolivia Central America

  9. Civilizations of Central and South America

  10. Spreadof Polynesian Peoples

  11. The Spread of Polynesian Peoples • Polynesia • Isolation – Fiji & Samoa inhabited by 1000 B.C.E. • Hawaii by 400 C.E. • Germanic Nomads move into Central Asia • Participate in Middle East trade

  12. China - Han Dynasty decline c. 100 C.E. Daoist revival led by Yellow Turbans Promised a Golden Age; attacked weakness of Emperor; led student protests – failed Epidemics Sui Dynasty – brief control Tang from 618 C.E. Glorious period in Chinese history; revival of Confucianism Continuity – Confucian values & lifestyles remained Decline in China

  13. Asia c. 600 CE

  14. Changes in Hinduism Islamic invasion Invasions from 600 C.E. Gupta empire destroyed Fragmentation Rajput – regional princes Buddhism declines Hinduism worship of Devi (mother goddess) Popular emotional religious revival Islam – Arab armies reach India’s NW frontier during 7th century Some converts to Islam – challenge to Hinduism control of Indian Ocean Decline in India

  15. 5th C Sculpture, “Buddha Preaching the Law” India-Gupta

  16. Why was control of the Indian Ocean so important? Indian Ocean Trading Routes in the Classical Period

  17. 2 Empires Two Empires Eastern Greek Constantinople continuity, vigor > Byzantine Empire Justinian (527–565 C.E.) Justinian Code Western Latin, Germanic Rome decline, vulnerable > Western Europe Decline and Fall in Rome

  18. Rise of Christianity • Religion Chart (pg. 111-117) • Hinduism Buddhism Islam Christianity • 2-3 examples of syncretism each • Major beliefs • God • Afterlife • Moral code • Prayer/priests/building of worship

  19. Babylonians developed Hammurabi’s code laid down the procedure for law courts regulated property rights duties of family members set harsh punishments for crimes. This focus on standardizing a legal system was one of the features of early river valley civilizations. Tigris-Euphrates Civilization

  20. Egyptians Emerged in N. Africa along the Nile River by about 3000 B.C.E. benefited from trade and influences from Mesopotamia, but it also produced its own distinct social structures and cultural expressions. Mathematical achievements and impressive architectural structures From 2700 B.C.E. onward, the Egyptian pharaohs directed the building of the pyramids, which were to function as their tombs. use of slave labor Egyptian Civilization

  21. Indian Chinese Indus River – 2500 BCE Cities: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro Trade w/Mesopotamia Indo-European invasions caused devastation Huanghe (Yellow) River Isolation Irrigation Horses/iron/coal P'an Ku – mythic ancestor of the Chinese Writing – ideographs (symbols) 1500 BCE - Shang dynasty Decline but great continuity Indian and Chinese River Valley Civilizations

  22. Basic achievements: wheel, alphabets, mathematics, and divisions of time Mesopotamian art and Egyptian architecture influenced the Greeks & Romans The Phoenicians devised a simplified alphabet – 22 letters Jews - smaller Middle Eastern group - first clearly developed monotheistic religion The Legacy of the River Valley Civilizations

  23. Compare the river valley civilizations • Tigris-Euphrates Indus Huanghe • Leadership • Law • Religions • Writing system • Trade • Technology