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Working memory and intelligence, looking at its relationship through Brunswik‘s lens. Werner W. Wittmann University of Mannheim, Germany Symposium „Working memory and intelligence: Controversy or consensus?“ organized by Phillip L. Ackerman, Georgia Institute of Technology

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working memory and intelligence looking at its relationship through brunswik s lens
Working memory and intelligence, looking at its relationship through Brunswik‘s lens

Werner W. WittmannUniversity of Mannheim, Germany

Symposium „Working memory and intelligence: Controversy or consensus?“ organized by Phillip L. Ackerman, Georgia Institute of Technology

Presented at APS - 15th Annual ConventionAtlanta, GA - May 29– June 1,2003

slide2

Validity (achievement),

Criterionscore

Clinician‘sprediction

Empirical validity of cues,

Cue utilization by clinician,

Input data (cues)

Clinical prediction paradigm schematized by Brunswik‘s lens model(After Hammond, Hursch, and Todd, 1964)
thank you egon and congratulations to your 100 th anniversary
Thank you Egon and congratulations to your 100th anniversary

Egon Brunswik 1903-1955

(Photo courtesy of Department of Psychology,University of California, Berkeley)

the hierarchical brunswik lens model

CR1

CR1

PRB

PRA

CR2

CRA

CR2

CR3

CR3

CRg

PRg

CR4

CR4

CR5

CRB

CR5

CR6

CR6

THE HIERARCHICAL BRUNSWIK LENS MODEL

PREDICTOR AREA

CRITERION AREA

the berlin model of intelligence bis

CONTENT

The Berlin Model of Intelligence (BIS)

OPERATION

Each parcel is build as an aggregate of three z-scored tasks, e.g.:Sparcel1 = (ZBD + ZTG + ZXG)

intelligence and many unanswered questions berlin model of intelligence bis 4 test

What predicts and explains intelligence

SINGLE TASKLEVEL(BIS-4)

CELLLEVEL

LEVEL OF GROUP FACTORSOF INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIVEAND CONTENTMODE

LEVEL OFGENERALINTELLIGENCE

MF

F

?

MN

?

Content Factorgc ?

?

N

MV

?

SF

V

SN

?

?

?

g

SV

WORKING MEMORY

M

CF

?

?

CN

?

S

Operative Factorgf ?

CV

C

?

?

RF

R

RN

?

RV

Intelligence and many unanswered questionsBerlin Model of Intelligence (BIS-4 test)
the set of working memory tasks in the wmc95 study

Working Memory Capacity

The set of working memory tasks in the WMC95-study

verbal

Reading spanVerbal span

Contents

Spatial-figurative

Spatial WMPattern Transform.MU Spatial STM

Alpha SpanVerbal Coord

numerical

TrackingSpatial CoordSpatial IntegrationMU spatial STM Spatial STM

Comp. SpanBackward digit spanMU numericalMath span

Switching verbalCategory gen.

Storage &Processing

Switching figurativeRandom gen.

MU numerical

Coordination

GaußSwitching numericalStar counting

Functions

Supervision

slide8

WORKING MEMORY MODEL (WMC_95)

BERLIN MODEL OF INTELLIGENCE

LEVEL OF GENERAL WORKING MEMORY FACTOR

LEVEL OF ORTHOGONALIZED WORKING-MEMORY GROUP-FACTOR

SINGLE WORKINGMEMORY TASK

SINGLE TASKLEVEL(BIS-4)

CELLLEVEL

LEVEL OF GROUP FACTORSOF INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIVEAND CONTENTMODE

LEVEL OFGENERALINTELLIGENCE

MF

F

Short TermMemory (F)

MN

Content Factorgc ?

.860

N

WMC-SPAT

MV

Memoryupdating (F)

.656

.670

SF

.890

V

Spatial (F)coordination

SN

WMC-g

g

ReadingSpan (V)

SV

.846

M

.600

WMC-NV

CF

Computation Span (N)

.829

CN

S

Operative Factorgf ?

.588

Memoryupdating (N)

CV

.438

C

RF

Switching (N)

.592

WMC-Switching

R

RN

.845

Switching (V)

.814

RV

Switching (F)

relating the three wmc group factors to the operative factors wmc95 study

REAS

CREA

MEM

EQS Summary StatisticsMethod: = MLChi-Square: = 11.64df = 9pvalue = 0.2345BBNFI = 0.942

BBNNFI: = 0.966CFI: = 0.985Set-R2 = 0.834N = 131

SPEED

Relating the three WMC-group factors to the operative factors (WMC95_study)

WORKING MEMORY GROUP FACTORS

BIS-OPERATIVE GROUP FACTORS

E 4

.74

.33*

WMC-NV

R2=0.45

.33*

.48*

-.39*

.24*

E 5

.97

R2=0.06

-.48*

WMC-SPEED

.25*

-.30*

E 6

.93

.26*

R2=0.13

.20*

.49*

WMC-SPAT

-.17*

E 7

.83

R2=0.31

relating the bis operative group factors to the three wmc group factors wmc95 study

REAS

CREA

MEM

SPEED

Relating the BIS-operative group factors to the three WMC-group factors (WMC95_study)

BIS-OPERATIVE GROUP FACTORS

WORKING MEMORY GROUP FACTORS

.37*

WMC-NV

E 1

.80

R2=0.35

.28*

.48*

.36*

.47*

WMC-SPEED

E 2

.23*

.81

R2=0.35

.17*

-.44*

.28*

.19*

.49*

WMC-SPAT

E 3

.81

.16*

R2=0.34

facet taxonomy for working memory tasks wmc 97 study
Facet Taxonomy for Working Memory Tasks WMC_97 study

Notes: The first column represents the hypothesized components involved in the tasks. CRT = choice reaction time task.

relating the three wmc group factors to the operative factors wmc97 study

MEM

REAS

SPEED

EQS Summary StatisticsMethod: = MLChi-Square: = 5.81df = 9pvalue = 0.7592BBNFI = 0.961

BBNNFI: = 1.058CFI: = 1.000Set-R2 = 0.682N = 131

CREA

Relating the three WMC-group factors to the operative factors (WMC97_study)

WORKING MEMORY GROUP FACTORS

BIS-OPERATIVE GROUP FACTORS

E 1

.92

.40*

WMC 97-SP

R2=0.16

.30*

-.27*

.24*

-.18*

E 3

.77

R2=0.41

.52*

WMC 97-CO

-.26*

-.22*

.18*

E 4

.92

R2=0.15

-.21*

-.23*

.21*

WMC 97-PROC

E 2

.98

R2=0.03

schmid leiman models for working memory and intelligence wmc 97
Schmid-Leiman models for working memory and intelligence (WMC_97)

.61

CO1V

ROP1

E 1

.36

.51

Co_res

REAS_res

CO1N

.57

ROP2

E 2

.58

.39

.24

.38

COF2

ROP3

D 4R2=1.00

E 3

.60

MOP1

SPV

E 5

.29

.30

1.00

g

wmcg

MEM_res

MOP2

SPN

E 6

MOP3

SPF2

E 7

.40

.54

PROCV

SOP1

E 8

.59

.59

Pro_res

PROCN

Speed_res

SOP2

.45

E 9

.66

.68

.42

.17

PROCF2

SOP3

E 11

Chi sq.=184,71 P=0.00 CFI=0.95 RMSEA=0.06

disentangling cor relationships in the brunswik symmetry framework wmc95 study
Disentangling (Cor)relationships in the Brunswik-Symmetry framework WMC95-study

MF

Factors NON-R used as THEORY-DERIVED SUPPRESSORS

MN

MV

WMC-NV

SF

M

g

SN

S

SV

WMC- g

WMC-SPAT

Operative Factor gf?

C

CF

CN

R

CV

WMC-SPEED

RF

RN

RV

experimenting with theory derived suppressors in the brunswik symmetry framework

PREDICTOR

WMC-gBIS-SBIS-CBIS-M

PREDICTOR

WMC-NVWMC-SPATWMC-SPEEDBIS-SBIS-CBIS-M

*

*

Experimenting with theory derived suppressors in the Brunswik-symmetry framework

Reasoning and WMC-g

R = .648 R2= .419 adj. R2= .415

Reasoning and WMC-gwith non-Reas (*) factors as suppressors

R = .712 R2= .507 adj. R2= .492

Increment dR²= .088

Reasoning and WMC group factors

R = .669 R2= .447 adj. R2= .435

Reasoning and WMC group factors with non-Reas (*) factors as suppressors

R = .724 R2= .524 adj. R2= .502

Increment dR2= .077

N = 135

PREDICTOR

WMC-g

STD COEF

.648

STD COEF

.803-.234-.173-.175

PREDICTOR

WMC-NVWMC-SPATWMC-SPEED

STD COEF

.495.422.155

STD COEF

.581 .494 .269-.207-.184-.171

All beta-weights p<.01

The results demonstrate higher symmetry at a lower level of generality. This tool is very helpful for differential-correlational research in explaining and understanding relationships between constructs.

slide16

Testing working memory and intelligence at „real-life“ criteria

Model of performances in complex computer based business gamesopi_g: General problem solving capacity

General(g) and not(g) factors as intelligence as process factors from the WMC95_study

Chi sq.=18.68 P=0.95 CFI=1.00 RMSEA=0.00

testing ackerman s ppik theory wmc95 study
Testing Ackerman‘s PPIK-theoryWMC95_study

Chi sq.=28.51 P=0.87 CFI=1.00 RMSEA=0.00

reasoning is a little bit more than working memory capacity wmc97 study
Reasoning is a little bit more than working memory capacity?!Wmc97_study

Chi sq.=52,76 P=0.12 CFI=0.98 RMSEA=0.04

summary and conclusions
Summary and conclusions
  • The relationship between working memory and intelligence is close but not identical.
  • It depends pretty much on what is defined as a working memory task and as an intelligence task.
  • Experimental cognitive research too often uses a single task only, thus the problem of level of generality is rarely visible and dealt with, odds for mismatch and asymmetry are high and the generalization of results is heavily endangered.
  • Differential cognitive researchers favorite g-factor at one level of generality easily can be a more circumscribed group factor at a more general level.
  • Principles of Brunswik-symmetry can help in improving prediction and explanation while searching for better understanding of construct validity. Symmetry is a key concept in all successful sciences.Thank you Egon Brunswik!