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R U S S I A N S T A T E S C I N T I F I C C E N T R E

R U S S I A N S T A T E S C I N T I F I C C E N T R E

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R U S S I A N S T A T E S C I N T I F I C C E N T R E

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  1. R U S S I A N S T A T E S C I N T I F I C C E N T R E C E N T R A L R E S E A R C H A N D D E S I G N I N S T I T U T E O F R O B O T I C S A N D T E C H N I C A L C Y B E R N E T I C S SNAKELIKE ROBOTS LOCOMOTIONS CONTROL Oleg Shmakov CRDI RTC DEPARTMENT OF SPbSPU Joint Advanced Student School 2006 Saint Petersburg Course 5: Mechatronics – Foundations and Applications 5th APRIL 2006

  2. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Introduction • Why snakelike robots? • Biomechanics of snakes • Review • Mechanic model of snakelike robots • Mathematical model of snakelike robots • Hardware realization control • Snakelike robot CRDI RTC • Conclusion

  3. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Why snakelike robots?Advantages • Stability • Terrainability is the ability of a vehicle to traverse rough terrain • Traction is the force that can be applied to propel a vehicle • Redundant • Simple anatomy

  4. Why snakelike robots? Applications • Search and Rescue • Examination blockages after earthquake • Planet’s exploration • Medical applications • Examination hard-to-reach areas • Tube inspection • Bio Terrorist • Remote sampling • Military inspection • …

  5. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Biomechanics of snakesVertebrate Snake vertebral articulation is one of the most complex of all vertebrates. Real snakes have 100-400 vertebrae

  6. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Biomechanics of snakes Locomotion modes • Lateral undulation • Sidewinding • Propulsion (with creeping) • Concertina • Rectilinear movement

  7. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control ReviewDesign snakelike robots Non-modular Modular WITH WHEELS WITHOUT WHEELS

  8. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control ReviewHirose & Umetami - SERPENOID • the waveform that the snake assumes during creeping movement is a curve which changes sinusoidally along the curvature of the body, and a formula for this, called a serpenoid curve.

  9. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control ReviewHirose & Umetami – ACM III • Active Cord Mechanisms – ACM • Wheeled robots • Robots that could perform lateral undulation • Hirose’s development of modeling and control first derived expressions of force and power as functions of distance and torque along the curve described by the snake. • Comparisons with natural snakes across constant friction surfaces showed close agreement between the serpenoid curve and the empirical data. • Snakes quickly adapt locally to variations in terrain and environment. • The control took the form of angle commands at each joint

  10. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control ReviewHirose & Umetami – ACM R3

  11. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control ReviewCarnegie Mellon University – Kevin Dowling

  12. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control ReviewCarnegie Mellon University – Biorobotics Lab

  13. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Mechanic model of snakelike robotsDobroluybov A.I. 1970 - Dobroluybov A.I. «genetic relationship» wheels and waves and Snakes are using rolling motion” Some points of a moving body or set of bodies during movement should vary periodically roles: mobile points become motionless and on the contrary. On character of this procedure of locomotion can be divided into two big classes: pacing when reference points of a body only during some moments of time pass from motionless in a mobile condition and back, and rolling when these transitions are carried out continuously. Snakes can move by pacing and rolling. Carry of points of a support of the essences, moving in the way rolling, can be various.

  14. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Mechanic model of snakelike robotsIvanov A.A.

  15. Lateral bending Rectilinear movement curving(without creeping) Side winding Shank movement Propulsion (with creeping) Concertina Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Mechanic model of snakelike robotsIvanov A.A.

  16. Random Search Hill climbing Simulated Annealing Neural Nets Response Surface Methods Genetic Algorithms Trigonometric forms Fourier Parametric curves Bayesian optimization algorithms Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Mathematical model of snakelike robotsHow to control? DOWLING CONRO TANEVCMU – Biorobotics Lab

  17. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Genetic algorithms for locomotions control Fitness convergence characteristics of 10 independent runs of GP for cases where fitness is measured as velocity in any direction (a) and snapshots of sample evolved best-ofrun sidewinding locomotion gaits of simulated Snakebot (b, c), viewed from above. The dark trailing circles depict the trajectory of the center of the mass of Snakebot. Timestamp interval between each of these circles is fixed and it is the same (10 time steps) for both snapshots. Trajectory of the central segment (cs) around the center of mass (cm) of Snakebot for a sample evolved best-of-run sidewinding locomotion (a) and traces of ground contacts (b).

  18. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control The determined approach of Ivanov A.A.

  19. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 С1 С2 С0 Microcontrollers RS232 Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Hardware realization control

  20. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Hardware realization control microcontroller Control & power DC motors Feedback from sensing JOINT Power supply Sensors MAIN Microcontroller For all joints (CMU)

  21. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Snakelike robot CRDI RTC

  22. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control System of snakelike robot control USB 1.1 RS232 Power supply Microcontrollers PC 4.8 - 6 volt Power supplyservo 6 volt Camera Coding - MAX 232 “SnakeWheel -1”

  23. AA F1 1 59 60 CS Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Structural control scheme 63 byte 63 byte*

  24. 1 channel 2 channel 1 channel 0,9 1,5 2,1 t, мс 10 мс 20 мс fbase= 1,5 Гц φ T ≥ 2/3 t fsend= 30 – 60 Гц T fsend≤ 50 Гц 20 – 40 main points Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Low level control fsend≤ 50 Гц 60°/0,11 с

  25. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Software scheme Entering parameters Bloc Of Protection Visualization Forming Bloc Camera control Blok Changing movement Send RS-232

  26. COURSE PITCH Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Software – snake-charmer 5 3 2 4 1

  27. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control EXPERIMENTLateral bending

  28. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control EXPERIMENTLateral bending

  29. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control EXPERIMENTSide winding

  30. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control EXPERIMENTSide winding

  31. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control EXPERIMENTMotion on the given curve

  32. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control EXPERIMENTMotion on the given curve

  33. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control Conclusion

  34. Oleg A. Shmakov Snakelike robots locomotions control ?Thank you for your attention