R E C O N S T R U C T I O N • Between 1865 and 1877, the federal government carried out a program to repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union. This program was known asReconstruction. • Freedmen(freed slaves) were starting out their new lives in a poor region with slow economic activity. • Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion. • Poor white Southerners could not find work because of new job competition fromFreedmen. • The war had destroyed two thirds of the South’s shipping industry and about 9,000 miles of railroad.
The Taste of Freedom • Freedom of movement: Enslaved people often walked away from plantations upon hearing that the Union army was near. • Exodusters: moved to Kansas and Texas • Freedom to own land:Proposals to give white-owned land to freed people got little support from the government. Unofficial land redistribution did take place, however. • Freedom to worship:African Americans formed their own churches and started mutual aid societies, debating clubs, drama societies, and trade associations. • Freedom to learn:Between 1865 and 1870, black educators founded 30 African American colleges.
FREEDMEN'S BUREAU 1865, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves get a new start in life. This was the first major relief agency in United States history. Bureau’s Accomplishments • Built thousands of schools to educate Blacks. • Former slaves rushed to get an education for themselves and their children. • Education was difficult and dangerous to gain. • Southerners hated the idea that Freedmen would go to school.
Letter by a Teacher teaching freedmen on the importance of education, 1869: “It is surprising to me to see the amount of suffering which many of the people endure for the sake of sending their children to school. Men get very low wages here---from $2.50 to $8.00 month usually, while a first rate hand may get $10.00, and a peck or two of meal per week for rations-----and a great many men cannot get work at all. The women take in sewing and washing, go out by day to sour, etc. There is one woman who supports three children and keeps them at school; she says, “ I don’t care how hard I has to work, if I can only send Sallie and the boys to school looking respectable.” Importance of Educ to freedmen
LINCOLN'S 2ND INAUGURAL SPEECH Lincoln’s speech “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds….to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction • State can be brought back into the Union when 10 percent of its voters from the 1860 election take an oath of allegiance to the United States and abide by emancipation. • Lincoln’s “Ten Percent Plan”
Wade-Davis Bill • 50 percent of a state’s voters must take oath of allegiance • Emancipation for slaves • Congress will administer Reconstruction • Lincoln pocket-vetoes the bill, and Congress responds by refusing to seat delegates from Louisiana government created by Lincoln’s plan
Amnesty:Presidential pardon • Rebels sign an oath of allegiance • 10% of the population • Leading Confederates lose right to vote, BUT • Even high ranking Confederate officials can petition for pardons • Write new state Constitutions • approve the 13th Amendment • reject secession and state’s rights • submit to U.S. Government authority • No mention of • Education for freedmen • Citizenship and voting rights PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION
John Picture background info PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON • Remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. • Lincoln chose him as his VP to help with the South’s Reconstruction. • Supported Lincoln’s Plan • Engaged in a power struggle with Congress over who would lead the country through Reconstruction. • Would be impeached but not removed from office.
Plans compared CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION Reconstruction Act of 1867--76(Harsh) • Amnesty : Presidential pardon • oath of allegiance---50% • high ranking Confederate officials • lose voting rights if you don’t sign oath • Write new state Constitutions • Ratify: 13, 14 & 15 Amendments • reject secession and state’s rights • submit to U.S. Government authority • Help for Freedmen • Freedmen’s Bureau for education • 40 acres and a mule • Divide the South into 5 military districts
Radical Republicans RADICAL REPUBLICANS Charles Sumner Thaddeus Stevens • Wanted to see the South punished. • Advocated political, social and economic equality for the Freedmen. • Would go after President Johnson through the impeachment process after he vetoes the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
RADICAL REPUBLICANS Thaddeus Stevens, in Congress, 1866 “Strip a proud nobility of their bloated estates, send them forth to labor and you will thus humble the proud traitors.” Thaddeus Stevens, in Congress, 1867 “I am for Negro suffrage in every rebel state. If it be just, it should not be denied: if it be necessary, it should be adopted: if it be a punishment of traitors, they deserve it.”
BLACK CODES • As southern states were restored to the Union under President Johnson’s plan, they began to enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. • The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these: • Curfews: Generally, black people could not gather after sunset. • Vagrancy laws: Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. • Labor contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned. • Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations.
Johnson’s Veto • President Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 • Gave $$$$ to Freedmen’s Bureau for schools and granted citizenship to the Freedmen • Congress believed Johnson was working against Reconstruction and overrode his veto. • Leads to the 14th Amendment An inflexible President, 1866: Republican cartoon shows Johnson knocking Blacks of the Freedmen’s Bureau by his veto.
Impeachment process IMPEACHMENT PROCESS Impeachment:Bringing charges against the President. Two steps involved…… 1st Step:U. S. House of Representatives hold hearings to decide if there are crimes committed. They then vote on the charges and if there is a majority, then, charges are brought against the President. 2nd Step:U.S. Senate becomes a courtroom. The President is tried for the charges brought against him. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the judge. Once trial is completed, Senators must vote to remove President with a 2/3’s vote.
JOHNSON'S IMPEACHMENT • Brought up on 11 charges of high crimes and misdemeanors. • Tenure in Office Act: Law Congress passed. President can’t fire any of his cabinet members without consulting Congress. • fired Edwin Stanton • Missed being removed from office by 1 vote • Presidency would suffer as a result of this failed impeachment. • President would be more of a figure-head. • Saved the separation of powers of 3 branches govt.
Civil Rights: What Blacks want CIVIL RIGHTS
14th: Rights of Citizens 14th AMENDMENT “All persons born in the U.S. are citizens of this country and the state they reside in. No state shall make or enforce any law which deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction to the equal protection of the laws.” The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. 14th
15th: Voting Rights 15th AMENDMENT “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 14th
Voting rights Reconstruction Amendments • 13th AmendmentAbolished slavery(1865) • 14th AmendmentProvided citizenship & equal protection under the law. (1868) • 15th AmendmentProvided the right to vote for all men which included white and black men. (1870)
The 14th and 15th Amendments • In 1867 and 1869 Congress passed the 14th and 15th Amendments, granting African American males citizenship, equality under the law and the right to vote. • In 1867 and 1868, voters in southern states chose delegates to draft new state constitutions. One quarter of the delegates elected were black. • The new state constitutions guaranteed civil rights, allowed poor people to hold political office, and set up a system of public schools and orphanages. • In 1870, southern black men voted in legislative elections for the first time. More than 600 African Americans were elected to state legislatures, Louisiana gained a black governor, and Hiram Revels of Mississippi became the first African American elected to the Senate.
Black Congressmen • First Black Senators and representatives in the 42st and 42nd Congress. • Senator Hiram Revels, on the left was elected in 1870 to replace the seat vacated by Jefferson Davis.
Once Johnson is impeached, Congress passes Reconstruction Act of 1867. • The South would be reconstructed under the Radical Republicans plan. • Republicans would elect Grant as their President and he would carry out the Radical Reconstruction. “The Strong Government”, 1869-1877. Grant enforcing the Reconstruction Act of 1867 and “forcing” the South to change.
Military Reconstruction Each number indicates the Military Districts
Abolitionists vs Women’s rights • Women rights supporters refused to support the 14th Amendment giving African American Men citizenship unless women were added to it. • Abolitionists would not support women’s rights
New South New South • Becomes industrialized • Cities rebuilt • Railroads • Schools, over a thousand • Hospitals, 45 in 14 states • Diversify economy.
Funding Reconstruction • Rebuilding the South’s infrastructure, the public property and services that a society uses, was one giant business opportunity. • Roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph lines had to be rebuilt. • Funds were also needed to expand services to southern citizens. Following the North’s example, all southern states created public school systems by 1872. • Congress, private investors, and heavy taxes paid for Reconstruction. Spending by Reconstruction legislatures added another $130 million to southern debt.
K K K • Ku Klux Klan refers to a secret society or an inner circle • Organized in 1867, in Pulaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest. • Represented the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers • Disrupted Reconstruction as much as they could. • Opposed Republicans, Carpetbaggers, Scalawags and Freedmen.
The Ku Klux Klan The Klan sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters. They wanted to keep African Americans as submissive laborers. They planted burning crosses on the lawns of their victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them. Prosperous African Americans, carpetbaggers, and scalawags became their victims. The Federal Response President Grant’s War On Terrorism. The Enforcement Act of 1870 banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting. Other laws banned the KKK and used the military to protect voters and voting places. As federal troops withdrew from the South, black suffrage all but ended. K K K Spreading Terror
kkk K K K SOUTH'S COUNTER REVOLUTION ALL HATED BY THE KKK CarpetbaggersNortherners/Republicans sent to help reconstruct the South…. ScalawagsSoutherners who helped Carpetbaggers Freedmen Blacks who tried to vote or were involved in the reconstruction of their states governments.
THE REPUBLICAN SOUTH During Radical Reconstruction, the Republican Party was a mixture of people who had little in common except a desire to prosper in the postwar South. This bloc of voters included freedmen and two other groups: carpetbaggers and scalawags. • Northern Republicans who moved to the postwar South became known as carpetbaggers. • Southerners gave them this insulting nickname, which referred to a type of cheap suitcase made from carpet scraps. • Carpetbaggers were often depicted as greedy men seeking to grab power or make a fast buck.
THE REPUBLICAN SOUTH • White southern Republicans were seen as traitors and called scalawags. • This was originally a Scottish word meaning “scrawny cattle.” • Refers to one who is a “scoundrel”, reprobate or unprincipled person. • Some scalawags were former Whigs who had opposed secession. • Some were small farmers who resented the planter class. Many scalawags, but not all, were poor.
kkk SOUTH'S COUNTER REVOLUTION
SHARECROPPING Sharecroppers were Freedmen and poor Whites who stayed in the South and continued to farm. • Freedmen signed a work contract with their former masters . • Picked cotton or whatever crop the landowner had. • Freedmen did not receive “40 acres and a mule”
SHARECROPPING • Sharecropping is primarily used in farming • Landowner provided land, tools, animals, house and charge account at the local store to purchase necessities • Freedmen provided the labor. • Sharecropping is based on the “credit” system.
Sharecroppers SHARECROPPING Advantages • Part of a business venture • Raised their social status • Received 1/3 to 1/2 of crop when harvested • Raised their self esteem Disadvantages • Blacks stay in South • Some landowners refused to honor the contract • Blacks poor and in debt • Economic slavery
A VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEBT 1. Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, no homes, and no money to buy land. 6. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord. 2. Landowners need laborers and have no money to pay laborers. ECONOMIC SLAVERY 3. Hire poor whites and freedmen as laborers • Sign contracts to work landlord’s land in exchange for a part of the crop. 5. At harvest time, the sharecropper is paid. • Pays off debts. • If sharecropper owes more to the landlord or store than his share of the crop is worth; 4. Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing, food or local store.
1876 Election • Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. • Special Commission gives votes to Hayes. • Hayes wins the election • Democrats refuse to recognize Hayes as President * *Disputed Electoral votes 164 369 total electoral votes, need 185to win.
Compromise of 1877 vs Rutherford B. HayesSamuel Tilden • The Democrats and Republicans work out a deal to recognize Hayes as President • In return, President Hayes must end Reconstruction and pull the Union troops out of the South. • Once this happens, there is no protection for the Freedmen and the South will regain their states and go back to the way it was.
Agreement between Democrats and Republicans • Hayes pulls the troops out of the South. • Southerners take over their state governments called “REDEEMERS” • Successes Freedmenwould be lost because Southerners would take over their state governments. • Jim Crow laws kept Blacks from voting and becoming equal citizens. Cartoon of Hayes: end of Reconst
social reality SEGREGATION • After Reconstruction, 1865 to 1876, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities. • Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2nd class citizens and from voting. • poll taxes • literacy tests • grandfather clause