Session 6 Planning for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) Measures
Disaster Risk Management The systematic process of using administrative directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters, including reduction and adaptation.
Disaster Risk Management Framework Development Continuum HAZARD EVENT/DISATER Source: Adapted from FAO. 2008. Disaster Risk Management Systems Analysis: A guide book.
The Ties that Bind in DRM The exposure of ADB loans to disaster risk reflects the exposure of DMC development activities to disaster risk Surface and Groundwater Resources Economic and Social Infrastructure Agriculture Potable Water and Sanitation Resettlement and Human Security Community Development
Areas of Convergence • CC adaptation specialists now being recruited from engineering, water/sanitation, agriculture, health & DRR sectors • DRM increasingly forward-looking • Integration of scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge for DRM provides learning opportunities • Existing climate variability is an entry point for CC adaptation • CC adaptation gaining experience through practical local application • DRM has a range of established & developing tools • Increasing recognition that more adaptation tools are needed • Climate-related disaster events are now more likely to be analyzed & debated with reference to climate change
Climate-Sensitive Health Outcomes • Physical factors • Climate • Elevation • Natural resources (i.e. water bodies, soil moisture) • Biological sensitivity • Concomitant diseases • Acquired immunity • Genetics • Socioeconomic status • Public health and health care systems
Key Messages • Extreme weather risk is seen against the backdrop of rising natural disasters. • Varying understanding of hazards and risk brings opportunities to develop robust frameworks and applications. • Risk management of climate hazards is part of development, not an add-on or option. • CCA can build on existing DRM tools, DRM can use existing CCA approaches and both are applicable to the health sector.
Disaster Risk Reduction The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and mange the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards lessened vulnerability of people and property and wise management of land and the environment (prevention and mitigation), and improved preparedness for adverse events (UN ISDR, 2009)
What is Adaptation? • Adaptation, simply, is the response to climate change impacts, to minimize losses and take advantage of opportunities. • Adaptation can be spontaneous or planned. • To plan for adaptation, one must understand potential impacts of climate change and vulnerabilities, and their root causes. What is DRR? Interconnected actions to minimize disaster vulnerability by avoiding and limiting the impact of hazards in the context of sustainable development
Overlap between DRR and Climate Change Adaptation Source: DFID. 2008. Convergence of Disaster Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation
Risk Reduction including Adaptation Strategies Levels of Intervention: • Institutional and technical strengthening • Structural adjustments • Land use planning, codes and use permits • Community-based climate risk reduction • Environmental management and ecosystem protection • Risk transfer • Retreat (i.e. migration)
Disaster Risk Reduction Assessment Summary • What are the solutions which might address both current and future vulnerabilities? • What are the costs, benefits, risks and co-benefits of each option to the community, to the investment? • What are the preferred options in the context of the project? • Who should be involved in identifying options?
Disaster Risk Reduction Examples • Drinking water – new/retrofitted community sources with sustainable provision • Water quality- community surface and ground water pollution controls • Food security – crop rotation with native species • Flooding and drought – improved water management for human consumption, agriculture, ecosystem function • Coastal erosion – stabilization, land use planning
Important Lessons from ADB DRM Experiences for DRR and CCA • Strategies should be comprehensive. • Establish clear linkages between international agreements, national strategies, local actions, and partner support • Community consultations are invaluable, especially for livelihood and community infrastructure projects • Institutional capacity building in project design at the local government and community level is needed. Communication Horizontal Cooperation and vertical Coordination integration
Methods for Assessing Vulnerability • Environmental and social assessments • Consultations with disaster prevention focal points • Community based consultations • Monitoring records of existing trends • Basis on current climate trends • Base on current challenges to ensure relevance and sustainability
Key Components of a Results-Based Strategic Approach • Natural hazard including climate change hazard, vulnerability and risk assessments • Selection of intervention type – policy, investment, capacity • Selection of risk management option - financial, economic, physical • Core results attributes – planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation • Focus on common results • Interdependency – top down, bottom up and linked • Horizontal and vertical linkage – across agencies in all sectors at all administrative levels
The Key Indicator is theHFA Expected Outcome “The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries.” This indicator is: S specific M measureable A achievable R relevant T Time-bound
Identifying DRR Actions Action Focus Who is the population or what built or natural environment is involved? What is the specific natural hazard involved? What is the geographic setting involved? What are the sectors involved? • What can be done about the hazard, vulnerability or risk? • By whom? • Where? • When? • At what cost? • Who pays? • Who benefits?
Use of Risk Information Results-Based PSM IDRM Policy, Investment and Capacity Interventions in order to address the needs of Risk assessments (financial, economic, physical) Reducing risk (structural and non-structural) Managing Residual Risk (passive and active) What is the information to be used ? Planning Budgeting Implementation Results Monitoring Evaluation Where are the key points in each feature of the Framework to use information?
What are the DMCs’ experiences with planning for DRM and CCA? Choose a cell(s) and discuss experiences with those parameters to plan DRM activities in your country .