ALL OF A SUDDEN….. • Driving in the winter means snow, sleet, and ice that can lead to slower traffic, hazardous road conditions, hot tempers and unforeseen dangers.
The winter season is upon us, which may mean snow, ice, sleet, rain and freezing temperatures. This time of year, it’s nice to see snow blanketing the streets, trees and rivers, but it can also be dangerous if you’re not careful.
YOUR CAR Prepare your car for winter. Start with a checkup that includes: • Checking the ignition, brakes, wiring, hoses and fan belts. • Changing and adjusting the spark plugs. • Checking the air, fuel and emission filters, and the PCV valve. • Inspecting the distributor. • Checking the battery. • Checking the tires for air, sidewall wear and tread depth. • Checking antifreeze level and the freeze line. • Your car should have a tune-up (check the owner's manual for the recommended interval) to ensure better gas mileage, quicker starts and faster response on pick-up and passing power.
FIGHT OFF THE COLD… • WORKERS BE SURE TO DRESS PROPERLY • LAYERS OF WARM CLOTHING • WATERPROOF COATS OR OUTERWEAR • HAT & GLOVES
FROSTBITE • SKIN FEELS COLD & NUMB • SURFACE OF SKIN HAS A WAXY LOOK • SKIN IS STIFF TO THE TOUCH • LARGE BLISTERS MAY APPEAR AFTER REWARMING
HEALING…… • GET OUT OF THE COLD & INTO A WARM PLACE PRONTO • REMOVE ALL CONTRUCTIVE CLOTHING OR JEWELRY ITEMS THAT COULD IMPAIR CIRCULATION • PLACE DRY STERILE GAUZE BETWEEN FINGERS & TOES TO ABSORB MOISTURE & KEEP THEM FROM STICKING TOGETHER • SLIGHTLY ELEVATE AFFECTED AREAS TO REDUCE PAIN & SWELLING
HOW COLD IS TOO COLD??? • ….WHEN THE BODY IS UNABLE TO WARM ITSELF. WHEN THAT OCCURS, COLD-RELATED STRESS MAY RESULT WHICH IS JUST AS DANGEROUS AS HEAT STRESS
COLD STRESS • A COLD ENVIRONMENT FORCES THE BODY TO WORK HARDER TO MAINTAIN ITS CORE TEMP. THE BODIES ENERGY IS USED TO KEEP THE INTERNAL TEMP WARM. THUS BLOOD WILL SHIFT FROM EXTREMITIES SUCH AS HANDS , FEET, LEGS & ARMS TO THE CORE OF THE BODY: CHEST & ABDOMEN. THUS ALLOWING EXPOSED AREAS TO COOL RAPIDLY & INCREASES RISK OF FROSTBITE & HYPOTHERMIA.
AGE & THE COLD….. • ANYONE IS AT RISK • THE OLDER YOU ARE THE MORE AT RISK YOU WILL BECOME • OLDER PEOPLE ARE NOT ABLE TO GENERATE HEAT AS QUICKLY & CERTAIN MEDICATIONS MAY PREVENT THE BODY FROM GENERATING HEAT NORMALLY. • WEAR A HAT, 40% OF THE BODY’S HEAT IS LOST THRU EXPOSED HEADS.
PREVENTION….. • DRINK PLENTY OF LIQUIDS • AVOID CAFFEINE & ALCOHOL • SCHEDULE HEAVY WORK DURING THE WARMER PARTS OF THE DAY • TAKE REGULAR BREAKS & WORK IN PAIRS • AVOID FATIGUE, ENERGY IS NEEDED TO KEEP WARM • EAT WARM HIGH CALORIE MEALS LIKE PASTA TO MAINTAIN ENERGY RESERVES.
TRAVEL TIME….. • From Thanksgiving through New Year’s, ensure that everyone takes every step necessary to avoid mishaps. Because this is a period commonly used for winter leave and vacation, more people will be on the road to visit family and friends for the holidays.
“WEATHER” No matter what the temperature, weather affects road and driving conditions and can pose serious problems. It is important to listen to forecasts on radio, TV, cable weather channel, or forecasts in the daily papers.
IF YOU BECOME STRANDED…. • Do not leave your car unless you know exactly where you are, how far it is to possible help, and are certain you will improve your situation. • To attract attention, light two flares and place one at each end of the car a safe distance away. Hang a brightly colored cloth from your antenna. • If you are sure the car's exhaust pipe is not blocked, run the engine and heater for about 10 minutes every hour or so depending upon the amount of gas in the tank. • To protect yourself from frostbite and hypothermia use the woolen items and blankets to keep warm. • Keep at least one window open slightly. Heavy snow and ice can seal a car shut. • Eat hard candy to keep your mouth moist.
DRIVING IN SNOW & ICE… • If you don't have to drive--don't! But if you must, drive defensively and smart. • Before beginning your trip, know the current road conditions. Call 1-800-367-ROAD or visit your state’s Department of Transportation website. • Be alert for potential driving hazards including downed branches, trees, electric lines and icy areas, such as shady spots and bridges. • Leave a few minutes early to allow extra time to get to your destination. • Slow down. Triple the usual distance between your car and the one ahead. • Stay in the plowed lane; avoid driving over the ridges between the plowed areas. If you must switch lanes, slow down, signal and move over slowly. • Don't pass a snowplow or spreader unless it is absolutely necessary.
DEHYDRATION • Cause - loss of body moisture • Dry air. • Cold diuresis. • Not enough fluid intake. • Signs/symptoms • Dry lips and mouth. • Dark yellow or orange urine. • Fatigue. • Treatment/prevention • Drink frequently. • 1/2 –1 qt per hour during heavy work load. • Timed drinking. • Don’t use alcohol or tobacco.
DRIVING IN SNOW & ICE …II • Don't park along the street. Snowplow drivers can't fully clear a road if cars are in their way. • If you skid, steer into the skid. If the back of your car is skidding to the left, for example, turn the steering wheel to the left. • Don't pump your brakes, and avoid locking them up. If your brakes lock, take your foot off the brake pedal for a moment. • If you're involved in a fender-bender, move the cars out of the lanes of travel. • Keep an emergency winter driving kit with a blanket and flashlight in the car. • While driving, keep your headlights on. Keep snow and ice off your mirrors, windows and lights. • As always, wear your seatbelts. • If your car has an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and you must brake, be sure to press the brake pedal and hold.
Principles of Care Need to maintain body heat • Frequent sock changes • In WW1, the Brits decreased trench foot cases from 29,000 in 1915 to 443 in 1917 by sock changes. • Cover head and neck, 80% of heat loss. • Use synthetic fibers, natural fibers retain moisture and have poor wicking ability.
DRESSING FOR THE C.O.L.D. • Keep Clothing Clean Dirt and grease block up the air spaces in your clothing and reduce the insulation value. • Avoid Overheating Sweat can freeze on outer layers. Stay dry, moisture will decrease the insulating ability of your clothing. • Wear Clothing in Layers Loose clothing allows air spaces to help trap warm air without restricting blood circulation. Good blood circulation helps to prevent frostbite. • Keep Clothing Dry You’ve got to keep your clothing dry, from the outside as well as from the inside.
Results of Cold Weather Injuries • Napoleon and Hitler both lost Russia due to Cold Weather Injuries. In the Korean War • 8,000 cold weather casualties the first winter
SUSTAINING PERFORMANCE • Limit Exposure • Many tasks can be divided into shorter segments to allow re-warming breaks: • For tasks requiring work without gloves, brief re-warming periods in a heated shelter or even time spent with the gloves replaced may maintain sufficient manual dexterity that the task can be completed. • It may be necessary to complete the task using a two-team approach, where one team works while the other re-warms. • Work should be planned to avoid extended periods of inactivity while scouts are in the cold.
IN CLOSING…… • WINTER DAYS ARE SHORTER & DARKER, WEAR HIGH VISIBILTY CAPS & COATS & VESTS. • KEEP A CHANGE OF DRY CLOTHING AVAILABLE. • WEAR AT LEAST 3 LAYERS W/OUTER A WIND & RAIN PROTECTION LAYER.