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Cold Weather
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Cold Weather

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  1. Cold Weather Working in Cold Conditions

  2. Cold Workplaces • Roofs in cold weather • Bridges near large bodies of water • High buildings exposed to wind • Refrigerated rooms or containers • Commercial fishing areas • Steel structures that retain cold • Unheated warehouses in cold climates

  3. Goals • Cold-Related Illnesses and injuries and first aid Treatment • Risk Factors and Prevention Measures • Quiz

  4. Body reacts to cold by: • Trying to maintain core temperature of 98.6ºF • Decreasing blood flow to extremities to prevent heat loss which • Keeps internal organs warm • Increases chance of frostbite • Shivering generates heat

  5. Hypothermia • Progressive loss of body heat • Accelerated when person is wet • Most cases occur in air temperatures between 30ºF and 50ºF • Can occur in air temperatures as high as 65ºF • Occurs in water at 72ºF

  6. Mild Hypothermia • Shivering and chattering teeth • Blue lips and fingers • Poor coordination

  7. Moderate Hypothermia • Mental impairment and confusion • Disorientation and poor decision making • Inability to take precautions from the cold • Slower heart rate and breathing rate • Slurred speech

  8. Severe Hypothermia • Resembles death • Unconsciousness • Irregular or hard-to-find pulse • No shivering • No detectable breathing

  9. First Aid for Hypothermia • Move victim to shelter • Remove wet clothing and wrap victim in warm covers • Apply direct body heat • Re-warm neck, chest, abdomen, and groin first • Give warm, sweet drinks if conscious • Monitor breathing, administer CPR • Get medical help

  10. Frostbite • Exposure to severe cold or contact with cold objects • Affects fingers, toes, cheeks, nose, and ears • Tissue freezes at 30ºF • May cause gangrene • More susceptible to future frostbite • Tissue death—amputation or loss of function

  11. Frostbite Symptoms • Sensations of coldness • Tingling, stinging, or aching sensation • Skin feels numb andcold to the touch • Skin is waxy and appears white • Blistering, turning red, then black

  12. First Aid for Frostbite • Warm gradually with body heat • Do not rub—may result in more tissue damage • Use water between 102°F-110°F • Apply sterile dressing to blisters • Do not thaw if risk of re-freezing • Get medical attention; thaw at hospital

  13. Goals • Cold-Related Illnesses and injuries and first aid Treatment • Risk Factors and Prevention Measures • Quiz

  14. Environmental Cold Stress Factors • Low temperature • Cool, high winds • Dampness • Cold water

  15. Wind Chill Temperatures • Combined effect of air temperature and air movement

  16. Other Risk Factors • Inadequate or wet clothing • Drug use or certain medications • A cold or certain diseases • Male gender • Age • Heart condition • Physical condition

  17. Environmental Protection • Heated shelters • Windscreens • On-site sources of heat • Thermally insulated tools and work surfaces

  18. Administrative Controls • Work and Warm-up Schedule for 4-hour Shift

  19. Protective Clothing • Several layers of clothing • Synthetic fibers next to skin to whisk away sweat • Water-repellent, wind-resistant outer clothing • Hats, hoods, or face covers • Insulated, waterproof footgear • Insulated, waterproof gloves • Change of clothing available

  20. Hand Protection • Wear gloves when fine manual dexterity is not required • Use tools and machine controls designed for gloved hand operation • Limit bare hand work to 10-20 minutes when < 60ºF • Use warm air jets, radiant heaters, contact warm plates • Use metal handles covered by thermal insulating material • Prevent contact frostbite when near metal surfaces < 20ºF

  21. Other Protective Controls • Be medically fit • Eat high calorie foods • Consume warm, sweet drinks and soups • Avoid coffee • Stay in good physical condition

  22. Safe Work Practices • Avoid heavy perspiration • Work in the warmest hours of the day • Minimize prolonged sitting, standing • Allow time to adjust to cold • Do not work alone • Watch for symptoms of cold-related illness

  23. Goals • Cold-Related Illnesses and injuries and first aid Treatment • Risk Factors and Prevention Measures • Quiz

  24. Summary • Symptoms of hypothermia and frostbite • First aid treatment • Wind chill factor • Engineering and administrative controls • Protective clothing and staying dry

  25. Quiz 1. The body responds to cold by shivering and _____________________________________ 2. Hypothermia can occur in air temperatures as high as 65ºF. True or False 3. Describe at least three symptoms of hypothermia. 4. Describe at least one form of environmental protection for workers in the field. 5. Other risk factors of cold-related illness include: certain medication, certain diseases, age, and physical condition. True or False

  26. Quiz (cont.) 6. Drinking coffee will help workers stay warm. True or False 7. Describe at least three symptoms of frostbite. 8. Warm up frostbitten areas by rubbing gently. True or False 9. Environmental cold stress factors include: temperature, wind, and __________________ 10. Administrative controls, such as __________, can be used to protect workers from overexposure to cold conditions

  27. Quiz Answers 1. Decreasing blood flow to the extremities 2. True, when other contributing factors are present 3. Confusion, disorientation, slow heart rate and breathing, shivering, blue lips, poor coordination, slurred speech 4. Heated shelters, windscreens, heat sources, thermal insulated tools 5. True

  28. Quiz Answers (cont.) 6.False, coffee increases blood flow to the extremities 7. Cold sensation, tingling, aching, numbness, white skin, waxy skin 8. False, rubbing will contribute to the skin damage 9.Dampness 10.Limiting work time or taking additional breaks