Review Game Kristian Garcia Francisco Oller Sebastian Colon
What is American Romanticism? • American Romanticism is a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution.
American Romanticism • Literary Themes: • Highly imaginative and subjective • Emotional intensity • Escapism Common man as hero • Nature as refuge, source of knowledge and/or spirituality
American Romanticism Writers • James Fennimore Cooper • Emily Dickinson • Frederick Douglass • Ralph Waldo Emerson • Margaret Fuller • Nathaniel Hawthorne • Washington Irving • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow • Herman Melville • Edgar Allen Poe • Henry David Thoreau • Walt Whitman
Characteristics • Characterization--work proves the characters are what the narrator has stated or shown • • Universe is mysterious; irrational; incomprehensible • • Gaps in causality • • Formal language • • Good receive justice; nature can also punish or reward • • Silences of the text--universals rather than learned truths • • Plot arranged around crisis moments; plot is important • • Plot demonstrates • ◦ romantic love • ◦ honor and integrity • ◦ idealism of self • • Supernatural foreshadowing (dreams, visions) • Description provides a "feeling" of the scene
What is Transcendentalism? • The belief of truths about life and death can be reached by going outside the world of the senses.
What are the characteristics Transcendentalism? • Nature • • Nature was divine • • Nature held the • truths of life • • To communicate • and be one with • nature was true • goodness • • Nature was • innocence and an • escape from the • evils of society
Characteristics of Individualism • Individualism • • Rejection of standard societal beliefs • • Inner truth is the only thing that • matters • • The soul is something equally • available to all people • • Fulfillment comes from knowing one’s • self, not wealth, gender or education
What is Moral Enthusiasm? • Moral Enthusiasm • • Anti- Aristocracy • • Anti-Slavery • • Pro-Women’s Rights • • Quest for Utopia ( Brook Farm)
Literary Focus: What is it? • Literary Focus • • Because of the stress of • “feelings” and “self” during • this time period, literature • was a very large medium • that artists used to express • themselves. Such artists • include: • Emily Dickinson, Ralph • Waldo Emerson, • Henry David Thoreau and • Edgar Allen Poe
Romanticism and what does it mean? • Romanticism is an artistic and literary movement that celebrates imagination over science, feeling over science and nature over civilazation. The movement also championed freedom and development of the individual spirit. The movement arose in the late eighteenth century to nineteenth century in Europe.
How Did The Movement Start? • The movement started as a reaction against rationalism. Came as a result of the Industrial Revolution which brought horrible working conditions and dirty cities. The Romantics believed that reason could only go so far and that imagination was the way to discover the truths. The Romantic believed in imagination, individual feeling and wild nature more than reason and logic.
What is the Romantic style? • The Romantic believed that the highest embodiment of imagination was poetry. The Romantic contrasted poetry to science, to them they thought that science destroyed the truth it was trying to seek. • Edgar Allen Poe called “science a “vulture” with wings of “dull realities”, preying on the hearts of poets.”
What is Romantic Escapism? • The Romantics escaped the “dull realities” in two ways. The first way was by finding an exotic setting in a natural past or somewhere far away from the industry age. The setting sometimes where supernatural or in old legends or folklore. The second way was to reflect in the natural world so that dull reality would reveal a beautiful and truthful layer underneath it.
Who are the groups of Romantics? • A group of Romantic writers are the Transcendentalists who believe that the physical world is a reflection of the Divine Soul • Another group of Romantic (Dark) writers explore the effects of guilt and sin, the conflict between good and evil and the destructive underside of appearances.
Who are The Dark Romantics? • Writers like Poe, Melville and Hawthorne are seen as the anti-transcendentalists. The world these writers saw was not the same optimistic one Emerson and his followers saw. • They agreed that the world had signs, where they did not agree on was what it meant, the Dark Romantics saw these signs as neither good or harmless.
Who are the Dark Romantics? (Cont.) • The Dark Romantics thought that Emerson ignored the dark world of the ecstatic, mystical elements of Puritan thought. The dark world Emerson forgot was the one of Original Sin, notion of predestination and sense of innate wickedness of human beings. • The Dark Romantic sought to balance this.
Who are the Dark Romantics? (Cont.) • The view of the Dark Romantics of existence was the mystical and the melancholy aspects of Puritan thought. They explored conflict between good and bad, madness in the human psyche and psychological effects guilt and sin had in the human mind and world. The Dark Romantics tried to see the horror and evil hidden behind pasteboard masks of social responsibility.
What are the social Influences of Romanticism? • “The lyceum movement furthers American education, self-improvement, and cultural development.” • “ Reform movements begin for women’s rights, child labor, temperance, and the abolition of slavery involving many Americans in social activism. • “Utopian planners attempt to turn idealized visions of human potential into practical realities.
Quiz • Name one of the 3 authors from American Romanticism? • Edgar Allan Poe • Henry David Thoreau • Emily Dickinson
Quiz • Name 1 literary theme from American Romanticism? • Highly imaginative and subjective
Quiz • What influenced American Romanticism? • Frontier promised opportunity for expansion, growth, freedom; Europe lacked this element. Spirit of optimism invoked by the promise of an uncharted frontier.
Quiz • Name two terms of moral enthusiasm • • Anti- Aristocracy • • Anti-Slavery • • Pro-Women’s Rights • • Quest for Utopia ( Brook Farm)
Quiz • What is Trancendentalism? • The belief of truths about life and death can be reached by going outside the world of the senses.
Quiz • What did the Romantics thing was the highest embodiment of imagination? • Poetry
Quiz • Name the two ways the Romantics escaped the “dull realities’? • The first way was by finding an exotic setting in a natural past or somewhere far away from the industry age. The setting sometimes where supernatural or in old legends or folklore. The second way was to reflect in the natural world so that dull reality would reveal a beautiful and truthful layer underneath it.
Quiz • Who are the Dark Romantic writers? • Edgar Allen Poe • Herman Melville • Nathaniel Hawthorne
Quiz What are characteristics of Dark Romantic writers? They explored conflict between good and bad, madness in the human psyche and psychological effects guilt and sin had in the human mind and world. The Dark Romantics tried to see the horror and evil hidden behind pasteboard masks of social responsibility.
Bibliography • Beers, Kylene. "Collection 2/ American Romanticism." Elements of Literature. Austin, [Tex.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2007. 140-49. Print. • "Romanticism." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011. Web. 08 May. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/508675/Romanticism>.