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Control Unit. TEAM 1: Miguel Harmant Rodney Rodriguez Elias Crespo Javier Parra Alfredo Alonso Marc-Wayne Anglin. Basic concepts. WHAT IS A MICRO-INSTRUCTION?. Single instruction in a micro-program. . WHAT ARE MICRO-OPERATIONS?.

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control unit

Control Unit


Miguel Harmant

Rodney Rodriguez

Elias Crespo

Javier Parra

Alfredo Alonso

Marc-Wayne Anglin

basic concepts
Basic concepts


  • Single instruction in a micro-program.


  • Smaller series of steps that compose a micro-instruction.
  • Atomic operation by the CPU.


  • Data transfers between registers.
  • Data Transfer from registers to memory
  • Data transfer from memory to registers
  • Logic and arithmetic operations.
basic components of the cpu
Basic components of the cpu
  • ALU - does the actual computation or processing of data.
  • Registers - set of internal memory.
  • Internal Data paths (Bus) - need to transfer data between the various registers and the ALU.
  • External Data paths - distribute data to other components.
  • CONTROL UNIT -controls the movement of data and instruction into and out of the CPU and controls the operation of the ALU.
what is the control unit
What is the control unit ?
  •  Is the circuitry that controls the flow of information through the CPU.
  •  It coordinates the micro-operations of other units within it.
  •  In other words, it is the brain within the brain.
basic functions of the cu
Basic Functions of the cu
  • Sequencing
    • Stepping through the micro-instructions.
    • Maintaining proper sequence.
  • Execution
    • Interpreting input signals into output control signals.
    • Executes Control signals.
example of the cu operations
Example of the cu operations
  • MAR <- (PC)
      • Control unit activates signal to open gates between PC and MAR 
  • MBR <- (memory)
      • Open gates between MAR and address bus
      • Memory read control signal
      • Open gates between data bus and MBR
  •  IR <- (MBR)
      •  Open gates from MBR to Instruction Register


Control signal Sequence

types of control unit
TYPES OF control unit
  • Hard-wired
    • Designed as a combinatorial and sequential logic circuit.
    • Input logic signals are transformed into output logic signals, which are the control signals.
    • Faster.
  • Micro-programmed
    • The control signal values for each micro-operation are stored in memory.
    • Micro-operations that compose control signals are read from memory.
    • Simpler to modify and construct.

RISC architecture

CISC architecture

components description
Components description
  • Instruction Decoder
    •  Takes the input from the op-code field of the instruction register and activates one of its 8 output lines.
    •  Each line corresponds to one of the instructions in the computer's instruction set.
    • Different Control Signals are produced depending on the op-code.
components description continued
Components description (continued)
  • Ring Counter
    • Continuously cycles from t0 to t5.
Control matrix
    • It receives input from the ring counter and the instruction decoder and provides the proper sequence of control signals.
review questions
Review Questions?
  • What are the basic micro-operations?
  • What are the three main components of the CPU?
  • What is the Control Unit?
  • What are the two basic functions of the Control Unit?
  • What are the two types of Control Unit?
  • How are they constructed?
  • What is RISC and CISC?
  • Which are the differences between the two types of Control Unit?
  • What are the advantages of each?
  • What are the disadvantages of each?