Getting Started • Study the drawing of Jacques Cartier claiming the Gaspe Peninsula for France on the opposite page. • Understanding the impact of claiming this land for France is important to understanding the history of Nouvelle-France, First Peoples, and Canada. • What issues and consequences do you predict happening from Cartier planting this cross? • Did Cartier "discover" this land? • Did Cartier have the right to claim this land for the King of France? • Why might First Peoples have welcomed Europeans? • What were the long-term consequences of the European presence for First Peoples?
Why Explore? • Humans have always sought to explore new frontiers. • Whether it is exploring new continents, new oceans, or the universe around us, the quest for new land, resources, and power has propelled humans to go where it is assumed that no one has gone before.
The Vikings • In 986 CE, BjarniHerjolfsson, while sailing to Greenland from Iceland, was blown off course by a storm and reported seeing land that was not Greenland. • While Herjolfsson did not actually stop at this new land, a few years later, another Viking explorer, Leif Ericson, followed Herjolfsson's route. • Noting an abundance of trees as he passed by what is now Labrador, he named the area Markland(forest land). • Eventually, he landed on Newfoundland and called the region Vinland (wine land) after he discovered what he thought were vines and grapes
The Vikings and Aboriginal Contact • Although Ericson had hostile confrontations with some First Nations people in Vinland, he also traded with others. • With the support of some First Nations communities, Ericson established what is believed to be the first European settlement in North America: LAnse aux Meadows. • Although Ericson and his men stayed in Vinland for only three years, stories of this land inspired other European explorers to take the risk and sail across the ocean to what would become known to Europeans as the New World. • By the beginning of the sixteenth century, it became known by its present name of North, Central, and South America.
Unearthing L'ANSE AUX MEADOWS • When and how was it discovered? • What does it mean to be a World Heritage Site? • Do you think this land should be preserved as such a site? Why or Why not?
First Contact • The arrival of Europeans to North America meant not only new opportunities for First Nations people, but also new challenges. • Different communities had their first contact with Europeans at different times • the first contact between the Vikings and First Nations in Vinland around 1000 CE, • John Cabot and the Beothukin 1497 • Jacques Cartier and the Mi'kmaq in 1534 • Canadian Arctic Expedition and the Kitlinermiut (Copper Inuit) and Netsilingmiut (Netsilik Inuit) in 1915.
The Doctrine of Terra Nullius • When European explorers sailed to North America, they claimed their "discovery" for their mother country. However, the land was not theirs to discover. • First Nations peoples had been living there for thousands of years. • Europeans in the fifteenth century approached the Americas with a worldview that was confident in the superiority of European cultures. • They also believed in the doctrine of terra nullius. Terra nullius is a Latin expression meaning "land belonging to no one" that describes territory over which no country has claimed authority. • As explorers travelled throughout the Americas, they claimed the land for their European countries, believing that no one owned it, even though it was clear that other people were living on the land. • The European explorers also believed that because First Nations cultures were not Christian, the land could not belong to them. • This European worldview helps explain why Europeans seized the lands they explored, even though the lands were already used and occupied by other peoples.
Lets Think • Explain the doctrine of Terra Nullius in your own words • Were Europeans justified in applying this doctrine to the “new world” they discovered in North America? • What were some of the justifications that Europeans used to support this world view? • Put yourself in the position of North America’s First Peoples. How would you have felt about these new inhabitants of your traditional lands?
Reasons for Exploration and Colonization • By the fifteenth century, navigational techniques had improved and new inventions such as the compass and the astrolabe made the trip from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean to North America more secure and faster.
The Northwest Passage • During this period, all of Europe's trade with Asia went through the city of Constantinople (known today as Istanbul, Turkey). • In 1453, the city fell to Muslims, which cut Europe o fffrom the riches of Asia. • Europeancountries began to look south around the tip of Africa, and west across the Atlantic in the hopes of finding a new route to Asia. • After becoming aware of North America's existence, they looked for the Northwest Passage, a route around North America through the Arctic Ocean
John Cabot and the Northwest Passage • After hearing about Columbus's voyages, England commissioned Italian navigator Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) to find the Northwest Passage. • In 1497, Cabot arrived in present-day Newfoundland, where he raised a cross and England's banner to claim the land for King Henry VII . • Cabot's reports of waters full of codfish reached different parts of Europe, and soon other countries were sending expeditions to the Grand Banks to drop their nets and return home after the catch was completed.
Subsequent Explorations • As a route to Asia was still desired by many European countries, such as Spain, France, Portugal, Italy, and England, hundreds of adventurers tried to make the dangerous journey across freezing Arctic and Atlantic waters. • British explorers who looked for the Northwest Passage included: • Sir Martin Frobisher (1576, 1577, 1578 expeditions) • John Davis (1585, 1586, 1587 expeditions) • Sir John Franklin (1845-1847).
Henry Hudson’s Voyage • The best-known northern mariner was Henry Hudson. • In 1610, he ventured into a strait that would one day be named in his honourand sailed southward into a wide expanse of water that he supposed to be the Northwest Passage to Asia. • When the water proved to be an inland sea (Hudson Bay), however, his crew mutinied and the captain and his close associates were set adrift in the ship's small rowboat. • Four mutineers survived to tell the story in England, but Hudson's party was never heard from again.
Abundant Natural Resources • As the quest for the Northwest Passage continued, more explorers reached North and South America. European countries began to realize the riches these lands possessed. • When news spread from the Spanish about the abundance of rich minerals such as gold in what is now Central and South America, the French and British increased their efforts to explore and settle in North America, and to exploit the natural resources that existed there. • As competition became more intense, the desire to secure their investments increased. • Building permanent settlements was one way to deter their European competitors.
Mercantilism • A popular economic theory in Europe, especially during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was the theory of mercantilism. • Mercantilismis the belief that a country could accumulate wealth by exporting more goods than it imported. • However, to manufacture these goods, countries needed a steady supply of raw materials. • Countries wanted to obtain these raw materials from within their own empires, and they looked to North America as a source. • Mercantilism not only spurred further exploration of North America, but also convinced European countries that they should establish permanent settlements there. • They believed that settlements would be an excellent market in which to sell manufactured goods that were created within the empire.
Competition Between Countries • Another factor that fuelled the colonization of the Americas was the intense rivalry for power among European countries. • One way of increasing their power was to claim and occupy new lands. • Colonialism, the control and exploitation of a territory through settlement, increased in intensity during the seventeenth century. • In North America, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France competed to colonize the most territory.
The Religious Impulse to Colonize • As European explorers brought back stories about First Peoples, many religious groups believed it was their duty to spread the Christian faith to these unknown cultures. • Without regard for First Peoples' rich and diverse spiritual traditions, religious groups believed that Christianity would "help" First Peoples and benefit their cultures. • The potential for religious converts prompted religious leaders to contribute to their government's exploration funds.
Colonization and the Future • These three reasons for colonization changed the history of North America forever • Mercantilism • Competition • The desire to spread Christianity
Early French Colonization and Exploration • While many British explorers searched Arctic waterways to reach the riches of Asia, the French tried to find an internal route through the continent. In so doing, they cultivated a French cultural presence in North America. • In 1523, the Italian explorer working for the French crown, Giovanni da Verrazano, set sail for the famed Northwest Passage, only to find the eastern coastline of the present-day state of South Carolina. • Undeterred, he headed north, hoping to find another inlet to take him to Asia. • On this voyage, he sailed to present-day Newfoundland. He abandoned his original mission, claiming that there would never be a way around this huge obstacle we now know as North America.
Early Explorers and Aboriginal Knowledge • The earliest Europeans to reach North America quickly realized they needed to form relationships with First Nations peoples. • First Nations people understood the land • they knew the geography • they had developed trade routes and effective methods of transportation • they could use resources from the environment around them to create medicine and to feed and clothe themselves. • In order to survive, Europeans needed First Nations help. • One of the first French explorers to realize this need was Jacques Cartier.
Cartier’s First Voyage • In 1534, inspired by Verrazano, Jacques Cartier convinced the French monarch, Francis I, to fund another expedition to North America. • In1534, Cartier set out from St. Malo, France, and crossed the Atlantic and entered Canada through the Gulf of St. Lawrence. • During his first voyage, Cartier placed a cross on what is now the Gaspe Peninsula, claiming the land for the King of France.
Cartier’s First Contact • During his first exploration, Cartier came into contact with First Nations people three times. • When he met the St. Lawrence River Haudenosaunee(Iroquois), he was introduced to their leader, Donnacona. • In preparation for future voyages, Cartier persuaded Donnacona to allow his two sons, Domagaya and Taignoagny, to go back to France with Cartier. • There, they were taught French so that they could be effective translators for his future voyages. • Cartier gained valuable information about the region's geography from Chief Donnacona's sons. • WhileCartier had not discovered a route to Asia, he did report on the abundant resources of fish, furs, timber, and fertile land. • Eager to take advantage of these invaluable resources, the French administration funded Cartier's second expedition.
Cartier’s Second Voyage • Cartier's second voyage in 1535 took him up the St. Lawrence River. • He stopped at the First Nations community called Stadacona. • He continued upstream until he reached the large Haudenosaunee city of Hochelaga. • That winter, Cartier returned to Stadacona, but the winter was harsh and Cartier lost twenty-five of his men to scurvy. • The death toll would have been much higher i f Domagaya had not showed the Europeans how to prepare a medicinal drink, called annedda, that combined cedar leaves and bark.
The Effect of First Contact • The First Nations people at Stadacona began to die from European diseases such as smallpox. • First Nations people had no immunity and no cure for these diseases. • Relations between the French and the Stadaconianshad become strained as the death toll among the First Nations people increased, but Cartier knew he needed their continued help i f he was to succeed in travelling through this unfamiliar land. • Before leaving for France, Cartier captured Donnacona, his two sons, three other leaders, and four children and held them as captives on the return trip to Europe. • None of the captives ever saw their homeland again, and all but one died in France before Cartier's return voyage. Cartier's treatment of the Stadaconiansproved to be disasterous for his next voyage to North America.
Cartier’s 3rd and Final Voyage • Stories of riches, such as gold and spices, and the route to Asia in a land Donnacona had called the Kingdom of Saguenay, prompted the funding for Cartier's final expedition in 1541. • This voyage, however, was treacherous for the French. • Because Cartier had intended to stay in Canada for some time, he brought cattle and supplies, and he even planted crops upon his arrival. • The third expedition, however, was plagued by scurvy, a formidable winter and, not surprisingly, an unfriendly reception from the Haudenosaunee, who mourned the death of their leader, Donnacona. • The Haudenosaunee began to conduct attacks on the French in retaliation, and Cartier lost thirty five of his men. • By the next spring, Cartier was forced to return to France, and all plans for colonization were abandoned.
Failure? • Although he failed to find the Northwest Passage or establish a colony, Cartier charted much of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and sailed the St. Lawrence River, which became the main entry point for future French exploration and colonization efforts. • However, after his final return to Europe, France found itself in a long civil war, and is expeditions to North America came to a halt for fifty years
European Explorers Project • Together with your group (~4 members) you will prepare a 5-7 minute presentation on one of the explorers listed below: • Ericson • Columbus” the good” • Columbus “the bad” • Cabot • Cartier “the good” • Cartier “the bad” • Hudson
Important concepts to review within your presentation: • Who were they, and from where did they sail (mini biography)? • What were they looking for? What did they find? • Did they have any contact with First Nations people in the Americas? If so, what did it consist of? • What is their legacy? • Additional things to keep in mind (this may help you get a great mark!) • Do you research (look at class notes as well as outside sources • As much as possible weave the Historical Thinking Concepts previously discussed through your presentation
Samuel de Champlain • By the end of the sixteenth century, after decades of warfare, France needed new sources of wealth to renew its resources. • King Henri IV believed that wealth could be found in the natural riches of North America, especially its beaver pelts. • Theking founded a company whose goal was to create a colony in North America. • The company was also given a monopoly—the exclusive right to trade—over the fur trade in an area known as Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick). • In 1604, the head of the company, Pierre du Gua de Monts, set sail from France to Acadia. • On this journey, de Monts brought with him a geographer and cartographer named Samuel de Champlain, who later became known as the "Father of New France."
Quebec City • Champlain and de Monts established a colony at Ile Ste. Croix in 1604, and then moved it to Port Royal (in present-day Nova Scotia) in 1605 due to its more sheltered location. • At Port Royal, Champlain used the idea of communal living and established the Order of Good Cheer to encourage settlers to work together to ensure their survival. • The Order of Good Cheer also organized festivities to help keep an optimistic mood among the men. • In 1607, however, Champlain and the French were forced to abandon Port Royal when de Monts‘ trade monopoly was revoked. • Determined to establish a lasting colony, Champlain turned his sights to the location where Stadacona once stood. • The village was now abandoned. • Historians believe that changes in the local environment, warfare, or diseases brought by Cartier may have caused the people to leave their village. • Champlain chose this site because of its advantageous location for trade, its fertile ground, and because it could be defended if ever under attack. • He named his new colony Quebec, which he took from the Algonquian word Kebec, meaning, "where the river narrows."