Human Cloning GhiaEscoto SBI4U December 10, 2009
What is it? • Cloning is the creation of an organism that is genetically identical to another organism. • There are different types of artificial cloning: • Recombinant DNA Technology or DNA Cloning • Reproductive cloning • Therapeutic Cloning • Cloning can be done by these processes: • Artificial Embryo Twinning • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SNCT)
Recombinant DNA Technology • Also known as “DNA cloning” • It is the transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to a bacterial plasmid. • The scientist use bacterial plasmids to generate multiple copies of a particular gene • Its been around since the 1970’s and it became the common practice in molecular biology labs today.
Reproductive Cloning • It is use to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another animal that is currently or previously existing. • This is done by the process called “Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer” or SCNT
Therapeutic Cloning • Also known as “embryo cloning” • These are practiced to produce human embryos for research • The goal is to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and treat disease, not just for creating cloned human beings.
Artificial Embryo Twinning • Mimics the natural process of creating identical twins • In nature, twins occur after the egg is fertilized by the sperm cells and when it tries to divide to two-celled embryo, they separate instead and create a separate individual within the mother • In artificial embryo twinning, scientists manually separate a very early embryo into individual cells and allow each cell to developed on its own • The resulting embryo is placed in the surrogate mother to carry and delivered.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer • Also known as SCNT • Scientist transfer the donor adult cell’s genetic material to an egg cell that has the nucleus removed. • The egg that contains the DNA from a donor cell is being treated with chemical or electric current to simulate cell division. • Afterwards, it is transferred to a surrogate mother to carry it and give birth. • Dolly the sheep was created using this process
The Ethics of Cloning • People have different views about whether they should clone humans. Many ethicists feel that cloning should be put on hold until people are more knowledgeable about it. Others say that cloning cannot be stopped. Most reasons for cloning a person are frowned on by doctors and the general public. • The Catholics say that cloning a human is a “violation of human dignity” • In an Islamic standpoint, they say that is morally and religiously wrong to employ cloning for other purposes other than therapeutic. • The Buddhist finds no real philosophical problem with cloning. They believe that there are no such thing as two identical existent beings and the genetic make up is only an outer physical manifestation of a person
Why Clone a Human Being? • To replace a child who has died • To save lives • To re-create extraordinary people • To create a master race
Bibliography • Cloning Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning .shtml • Genetic Science Learning Center (2009, December 6) What is Cloning?. Learn.Genetics.Retrieved December 6, 2009, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/ • Hyde, M. O., & Setaro, J. (2001). Facts and Fantacies about Human Cloning. In Medicine's Brave New World (p. 76). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sch&AN=8821265&s ite=ehost-live • Smith, S. (n.d.). All the Reasons to Clone Humans. In Human Cloning. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.humancloning.org/allthe.php • Wachbroit, R. (n.d.). Genetic Encores: The Ethics of Human Cloning. In Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from http://www.publicpolicy.umd.edu/IPPP/Fall97Report/cloning.htm