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Spirituality in Family and Play Therapy

Spirituality in Family and Play Therapy

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Spirituality in Family and Play Therapy

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  1. Spirituality in Family and Play Therapy By: Julie R. Plunkett

  2. Basics of Spirituality

  3. Religion vs. Spirituality • Delaney, et. al (2013) defined: • RELIGION: “…increasingly used to refer to institutional religion.” (p. 101). • SPIRITUALITY: “..refers to the personal side of religious experience.” (p. 101). • Walsh (2009) defined: • RELIGION: “…formal, organized faith traditions and their shared beliefs, practices, and faith communities.” • SPIRITUALITY: “…refers more broadly to a dimension of human experience, involving transcendent values, beliefs, and practices for meaning, harmony, and connection, which may be expressed within or outside religion.” Delaney, H. D., Miller, W. R., & Bisonó, A. M. (2013). Religiosity and spirituality among psychologists: A survey of clinician members of the American Psychological Association. Spirituality in Clinical Practice,1(S), 95-106. doi:10.1037/2326.4500.1.s.95

  4. Religion vs. Spirituality • Griffith (2002) defined: • Religion: “…represents a cultural codification of important spiritual metaphors, narratives, beliefs, rituals, social practices and forms of community among a particular people that provides methods for attaining spirituality, most often expressed in terms of a relationship with the God of the religion.” • Spirituality: “…a commitment to choose, as the primary context for understanding and acting, one’s relatedness with all that is. With this commitment, one attempts to stay focused on relationships between oneself and other people, the physical environment, one’s heritage and traditions, one’s body, one’s ancesotrs, saints, Higher Power or God.” Griffith, James L. (2002) Encountering the Sacred in Psychotherapy. The Guilford Press, 20120119. VitalBook file.

  5. Relational Spirituality • Spiritual development in children takes place through the relationships that they have with significant people in their life. • These relationships help them experience something beyond them such as, “understanding of existence, human nature, creation story and ultimate reality.” (p. 92). • Both meaning and purpose are constructed within their particular network of relationships and contexts, including personal experience, family, peers, neighborhoods, schools, churches, societies and cultures.” (p. 92) Lewis Quagliana, H., Ebstyne King, P., Quagliana, D. P., & Mans Wagener, L. (2013). Spiritually Oriented Interventions in Developmental Context (H. L. W., Ed.). In W. F. D. (Ed.), Spiritual Interventions in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy (pp. 89-110). American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13947-005

  6. Healing and Treatment

  7. Healing and Treatment • HEALING- “…gathering of resources within the person, the family, and the community, and is fostered through a collaborative therapeutic relationship.” • TREATMENT- “…externally administered by experts to reduce or eradicate individual disorders or family dysfunction. • BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL-SPIRITUAL- “As we integrate spirituality and other aspects of our experience, we can advance a truly holistic view of families, their suffering, and their healing potential.” • Western scientific medicine focuses on external causes of disease. • Eastern religious and philosophical traditions believe there is a harmonious balance between mind-body-spirit. Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  8. Healing and Treatment • Many therapists are uncomfortable with the idea of “healing”, but: • Carl Jung- healing means wholeness and wholeness includes the spiritual domain. • “Gregory Bateson our most visionary systems theorist, taught us to look for the “patterns that connect” and to see mind and nature as a necessary unity.” (Bateson, 1979 as cited in Walsh, 2009) • Virginia Satir- “…stood out in embracing a broad spiritualty in her view of healhy family functioning and in her practice approach • Contextual Family therapy- “…emphasizes the ethical dimensional and issues of justice in intergenerational relationships.” • Victor Frankl- “…both therapist and client ethical convictions are powerful resources to draw upon in the therapeutic process.” Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  9. Spirituality in Treatment • “Spirituality is a universal dimension of life that lends a meaning to our existence, sets a moral standard for living, and assumes some sense of moral connection among people at the very heart of our humanity.” • To gain further insight into clients consider family history, psychological dynamics of issues, and world view of the client about their struggles. • Belief that there are moral components to the presenting problem. • Presenting problems take place in a social context and social meaning to life. • Increases options for solutions • It gives purpose and significance to difficult situations • It stabilizes and guides clients in an inconsistent and gray world. Aponte, H. J. (2002). Spirituality: The Heart of Therapy. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Eds.), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:Erickson, M. J. (2003). Spirituality and Family Therapy. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781317787723/

  10. Spirituality in Treatment • We can only recognize spiritual issues and struggles in our clients if we first are aware of them in ourselves. • “Spirituality is part of everybody’s life, be it a secular or religious spirituality. Therapists who do not consider the legitimacy of a spiritual perspective, or who are personally at war with their own spirituality, or who do not tolerate spirituality alien to their own, limit their ability to see and relate to the spirituality of their clients.” Aponte, H. J. (2002). Spirituality: The Heart of Therapy. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Eds.), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:Erickson, M. J. (2003). Spirituality and Family Therapy. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781317787723/

  11. Spirituality in Treatment • “Spirituality is the heart of therapy, addressing the transcendent bonds to human and supernatural resources, along with the moral values and ideals undergirding the decisions that determine the course of people’s solutions. This is a materialistic and secular society in which there is a growing thirst for values and meaning beyond money, power, and personal gratification.” Aponte, H. J. (2002). Spirituality: The Heart of Therapy. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Eds.), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:Erickson, M. J. (2003). Spirituality and Family Therapy. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781317787723/

  12. Clinical Assessment • Should explore the spiritual domain of the client. • Where the client finds spiritual nourishment: nature, creative arts, community/social activism. • Seek to understand the client’s experience of religion and spirituality and spiritual resources • Distress and Resilience: • “Ways that religious/spiritual beliefs or experiences might contribute to current distress. • Ways that past, current, or potential spiritual resources might be drawn upon to ease distress, resolve problems, and strengthen resilience in dealing with adversity.” Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  13. Treatment • RESILIENCE- “..the ability to overcome adversity, strengthened and more resourceful. (Walsh, 2013 as cited in Walsh, 2009). • FAMILY RESILIENCE- “… involves key processes that enable the family system to rally in times of crisis: buffer stress, reduce the risk of dysfunction, and support optimal adaptation for all members (Walsch, 2003, 2006 as cited in Walsh, 2009). • Family beliefs are important in times of crisis • Cultural and religious beliefs are primary shared convictions during times of crisis • Sharing spiritual values in the family helps them strengthen bonds Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  14. Treatment Mental Health Benefits of Beliefs • Beliefs are a powerful influence and can enhance or block well-being • Studies have shown faith, prayer, and spiritual rituals strengthen. • Studies have shown meditation reduces physical and mental symptoms. • Faith and congregational support can help overcome poverty and racism barriers Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  15. Treatment Mental Health Benefits of Beliefs • Family-of-origin has hidden spiritual resources • Forgiveness heals the wounds of the mind, body and spirit, unforgiveness creates the wounds. • Rituals connect the client to their “deepest spiritual core” and all that is around them. • Serving others and activism can help heal wounds Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  16. Spiritual Diversity in Treatment • “Cultural traditions and spiritual beliefs need to be integrated in a holistic approach to mental health and health care.” • When families have diversity in the therapist can help family members understand and respect each other’s beliefs and practices. • Watch out for over identification with clients who have similar beliefs to yourself. • Be respectful of those with different beliefs. Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  17. Spiritual Diversity in Treatment “We must learn from our clients about their own spiritual journey, their needs and preferences, how they may have been wounded, and how they have found healing. We need to be open-hearted in listening to and exploring religious and spiritual questions and beliefs that have profound implications for their lives. Most importantly, we need to encourage their efforts to open and expand spiritual pathways to meet current challenges and experience personal and relational growth.” Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  18. Spiritual Diversity in Treatment “When our clients lose hope, our faith in their potential can restore their faith. When we believe in their worth, our clients are better able to rise to meet their challenges with confidence and competence. Valuing human connection, we help our clients to seek reconciliation to heal wounded relationships and encourage them to forge more meaningful personal and spiritual bonds. These are essentially spiritual endeavors” (Aponte, 2002 as cited in Walsh, 2009). Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  19. Honoring the Story • Have an attitude of wonder • A climate of openness and respect • Respect the personhood of the client • Express, recognize and understand • Listen carefully so client feels safe and respected. • Meet the client where they are Griffith, J. L., & Griffith, M. E. (2002). Encountering the sacred in psychotherapy: how to talk with people about their spiritual lives. New York: Guilford Press. doi:20120119. VitalBook file.

  20. Honoring the Story • When not to pursue the story. • Client has good reason not to want to talk about it. • Does not match the person’s agenda for therapy. • When having inadvertently offended, attacked or silenced the client. • “…seek a posture of noncertainty when conducting therapy. This does not mean that we each do not have beliefs, convictions, opinions, or prejudics, but that we have adopted an intentional plan to foster curiosity, openness, and wonder as our dominant emotions in the therapy room.” Griffith, J. L., & Griffith, M. E. (2002). Encountering the sacred in psychotherapy: how to talk with people about their spiritual lives. New York: Guilford Press. doi:20120119. VitalBook file.

  21. Use of Therapist Beliefs • Spiritual enhancement of therapy • Helps see clients issues and make moral choices. • Helps ground the problem so solutions come from inner beliefs and motives. • Adds to client’s resources through spiritual enrichment. • Steps to solving basic problems: • “Identify the key decisions vis-a-vis the focal issue that are necessary for people to begin turning their lives around; • Set the value platform that is to serve as the moral standard upon which these decisions are to be made; • Place the decisions within the key relationships in people’s lives, from human to divine, that will support their critical life-changing choices. Aponte, H. J. (2002). Spirituality: The Heart of Therapy. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Eds.), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:Erickson, M. J. (2003). Spirituality and Family Therapy. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781317787723/

  22. Why and How do I bring it up?

  23. Spirituality and PsychotherapyWhy don’t we bring it up? • APA found that their members were far less religious than the clients they saw. • Members did believe they had spirituality in their lives. • The widening gap is concerning if it leads therapists to not bring up religious and/or spiritual issues. • Feelings of lacking competence in the area. • Not valuing the importance of these issues in clinical practice. Delaney, H. D., Miller, W. R., & Bisonó, A. M. (2013). Religiosity and spirituality among psychologists: A survey of clinician members of the American Psychological Association. Spirituality in Clinical Practice,1(S), 95-106. doi:10.1037/2326.4500.1.s.95

  24. Spirituality and PsychotherapyWhy don’t we bring it up? • Therapists hesitancy to bring up spirituality. • Part of their training has been not to impose their values. • Lack of training and confidence in integrating spirituality and therapy. • Unfamiliar with families beliefs and spiritual issues. • Their own religious and/or spiritual experiences. • Socioculturally there is a separation of church and state. • Psychology’s need to be seen as a legitimate science. • Families often feel uncomfortable brining up spirituality and religion as well. Helmeke, K. B., & G. H. (2002). Recognizing and Raising Spiritual and Religious Issues in Therapy: Guidelines for the Timid. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Authors), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:20140225. VitalBook

  25. Spirituality and PsychotherapyWhy don’t we bring it up? • Reasons it has traditionally been omitted from clinical training, practice and research. • Spiritual issues were seen to be outside of the domain of therapy, but it is being shown that physical and psychosocial distress is connected to spiritual distress. • Therapist might influence the client, but therapists can show respect to clients by recognizing and exploring their own values and beliefs. • Separation of scientific paradigm and the medical model to prove credibility, but studies now show the spiritual influences mental and physical well-being. Walsh, F. (2009). Integrating Spirituality in Family Therapy. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781606238387/

  26. Bringing up Spirituality and Religion • According to a survey done by Kahle (as cited in Griffith and Griffith, 2002) the following was found • 98% of therapists would be willing to talk about spirituality if the family brought up the topic. • 60% said they would bring up the topic of spirituality • 48% said they would bring up the topic of God. • Cited being discouraged by education, training and worksites. • Concerned over imposing belief systems. • Reliance on God would disempower the client. • Fear differences in beliefs would build a barrier Griffith, J. L., & Griffith, M. E. (2002). Encountering the sacred in psychotherapy: how to talk with people about their spiritual lives. New York: Guilford Press. doi:20120119. VitalBook file.

  27. Bringing up Spirituality and Religion • According to a survey done by Kahle (as cited in Griffith and Griffith, 2002) the following was found: • Cited being encouraged to bring up the topic by clients. • SAFE GUARD- • curiosity of clients experience and its meaning. • Asking about preferences. • Belief in alternative stories. • Ways to honor spiritual stories: • Pay attention to their language. • Notice shifts in the story • Suspend familiarity with cultural stories • Make it a space of that is welcoming to the story. Griffith, J. L., & Griffith, M. E. (2002). Encountering the sacred in psychotherapy: how to talk with people about their spiritual lives. New York: Guilford Press. doi:20120119. VitalBook file.

  28. How do we Bring up Spirituality and Religion? I. Spiritual issues raised by client. • When there is no explicit mention of God or religious figures • People who consider themselves moral with a moral code but do not belong to an organized religion. • How to handle: • Acknowledge the comment regarding spirituality. • Assess the impact of spiritual beliefs and practices on the presenting problem. • Assess the potential for spiritual beliefs to be a solution for presenting problem. • Assess your own role in the families spirituality. • Exploring life experiences that contribute to their spirituality and the impact on them. Helmeke, K. B., & G. H. (2002). Recognizing and Raising Spiritual and Religious Issues in Therapy: Guidelines for the Timid. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Authors), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:20140225. VitalBook

  29. How do we Bring up Spirituality and Religion? II. Religious issues raised by client. • Direct comment on the belief in God and/or other religious figures. • Direct comment about religious practice or organization. • How to handle: • Learn about the religious denomination. • Consider brining in a leader from the religious denomination for consultation or to include in session. • Pay attention to the religious language that is used. • Know your triggers to religion based on family of origin or “church of origin” issues. Helmeke, K. B., & G. H. (2002). Recognizing and Raising Spiritual and Religious Issues in Therapy: Guidelines for the Timid. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Authors), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:20140225. VitalBook

  30. How do we Bring up Spirituality and Religion? III. Spiritual issues raised by therapist. • How to handle: • Brought up after recognizing how beliefs contribute to healthy functioning in life. • Be willing to stop if client not interested in topic. • Brought up when therapist sees that spirituality may be involved in presenting problem. • Notice that some of the issues they are bringing up are really spiritual issues. Helmeke, K. B., & G. H. (2002). Recognizing and Raising Spiritual and Religious Issues in Therapy: Guidelines for the Timid. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Authors), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:20140225. VitalBook

  31. How do we Bring up Spirituality and Religion? IV. Religious issues raised by therapist. • How to handle: • Great caution and restraint is needed. • Danger of over identifying with families of the same religion. • Look at them with curiosity and wonder. • During assessment while looking for strengths and resources. • Spiritual genogram • Adding it to your disclosure form. • After a client has raised a related yet separate spiritual issue. • Religious issues are impacting presenting problem. • To acknowledge the family’s commitment and involvement in a religious denomination. Helmeke, K. B., & G. H. (2002). Recognizing and Raising Spiritual and Religious Issues in Therapy: Guidelines for the Timid. In T. Carlson & M. J. Erickson (Authors), Spirituality and family therapy. New York: Haworth Press. doi:20140225. VitalBook

  32. Techniques for the Therapist

  33. Therapist Self-Reflection • “The two central qualities of spirituality threatening its appropriate use in clinical setting are its highly subjective and identity defining nature.” • Therapist should engage in self-reflection for clinical accountability. Maher, A. B., & Ford Sori, C. (2006). Incorporating Spirituality into the Therapeutic Setting: Safeguarding Ethical Use of Spirituality Through Therapist Self-Recognition. In K. B. Helmeke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, New York: Hawthorn Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  34. Therapist Self-Reflection Process • Therapists are encouraged to write their responses to the following categories: • Spiritual History and current context of spiritual beliefs. Doing a spiritual Genogram would be helpful. • Write out the religious denominations religious language and then make it more client friendly. • Write out your theoretical base in the language of the theory then make it more client friendly. • Write out your self-resources. Your own belief system • Write out your personal biases and fears as well as comfort level discussing spirituality. Maher, A. B., & Ford Sori, C. (2006). Incorporating Spirituality into the Therapeutic Setting: Safeguarding Ethical Use of Spirituality Through Therapist Self-Recognition. In K. B. Helmeke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, New York: Hawthorn Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  35. Therapist Self-Reflection Process Questions to look at theoretical orientation: • “General theory of therapy: What brings people to therapy and how does it serve them? Describe the overall purpose and function of the therapeutic process, and of the therapist. What theorists and philosophical underpinnings influence your work? • Nature of persons: How do you understand human beings? What makes us tick, what do we need to function optimally? Logical areas to explore include descriptions of what constitutes healthy functioning; how is it achieved, maintained, and restored. What constitutes dysfunction or lack of health (or whatever clinical language you use); how does it occur and how is it maintained?” Maher, A. B., & Ford Sori, C. (2006). Incorporating Spirituality into the Therapeutic Setting: Safeguarding Ethical Use of Spirituality Through Therapist Self-Recognition. In K. B. Helmeke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, New York: Hawthorn Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/c

  36. Therapist Self-Reflection Process Questions to look at theoretical orientation: • “Assessment: What is the purpose and function of assessment? What processes do you use and why? How might these activities resonate or conflict with your philosophical beliefs as detailed in items 1 and 2 above? • Treatment strategies: Describe what you do in session (in broad strokes and specifically) and why. Does it resonate with your theoretical orientation as described above?” Maher, A. B., & Ford Sori, C. (2006). Incorporating Spirituality into the Therapeutic Setting: Safeguarding Ethical Use of Spirituality Through Therapist Self-Recognition. In K. B. Helmeke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, New York: Hawthorn Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  37. Therapist Self- Reflection Process Questions to look at theoretical orientation: • “Assessment: What is the purpose and function of assessment? What processes do you use and why? How might these activities resonate or conflict with your philosophical beliefs as detailed in items 1 and 2 above? • Treatment strategies: Describe what you do in session (in broad strokes and specifically) and why. Does it resonate with your theoretical orientation as described above?” Maher, A. B., & Ford Sori, C. (2006). Incorporating Spirituality into the Therapeutic Setting: Safeguarding Ethical Use of Spirituality Through Therapist Self-Recognition. In K. B. Helmeke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, New York: Hawthorn Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  38. Exploring Your Spiritual History • “Handout Three: Exploring Your Spiritual History—Then, Now, and in the Future Exercise One: Your Past and Present Spiritual History” • “This exercise invites you to identify the role of spirituality in your life now and in the past. Our sense of the Divine or faith is influenced not only by what we learned and how we mulled that over in our minds, but by our personal encounters with significant individuals and our faith communities. This exercise offers a way for you to begin exploring those encounters and its influence on your understanding of faith and/or spirituality.” Maher, A. B. (2006). Impact of Abuse on Inernalized God Images: Spiritual Assessment and Treatment Using Guided Imagery (C. Ford Sori, Ed.). In K. B. Helmke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  39. Exploring Your Spiritual History “Current Spiritual Interests • What is prompting you to explore your spirituality at this point in your life? • Later on in this exercise you will explore the growth of your spiritual beliefs over time. But for now, briefly describe your spiritual beliefs at this moment. If you believe in God or a Divine Being, how would you describe the “character” of this entity? And how do you believe this spiritual being relates to you in times of struggle, sadness, pain, fear, and happiness? • Many people find support in their spiritual growth by identifying with a religious faith and/or spiritual community. What are your preferences today? Are you active in a religious group? Why have you chosen this group? Or, why have you chosen to not become involved in a religious or spiritual community?” Maher, A. B. (2006). Impact of Abuse on Inernalized God Images: Spiritual Assessment and Treatment Using Guided Imagery (C. Ford Sori, Ed.). In K. B. Helmke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  40. Exploring Your Spiritual History “Family History of Spiritual and/or Religious Education • What was the religious orientation of your parents and ancestors? Did they talk about and practice their faith openly? Do you consider their faith expression to be more conservative (strict adherence to traditional interpretations and religious practices), moderate, or liberal (flexible expressions of religious belief)? How did the adults in your family speak of belief systems other than their own? • What were the primary sources of your religious instruction? Do you remember your first ponderings about God? What were you taught about the existence and nature of God or spirituality? • Prior to right now, what has been your experience in religious communities? Was participation or nonparticipation an option for you?” Maher, A. B. (2006). Impact of Abuse on Inernalized God Images: Spiritual Assessment and Treatment Using Guided Imagery (C. Ford Sori, Ed.). In K. B. Helmke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  41. Exploring Your Spiritual History “Exploring Life’s Ultimate Meaning and Purpose • Religion and/or spiritual practices offer answers to the ultimate meaning and purpose of human life. Many of these answers are implied or accepted through an act of faith; some of the answers offered may be vague or specific, relative or absolute. How would you describe the purpose of your life? How have your spiritual and/or religious beliefs influenced these thoughts? • Religious teachings and spiritual practices suggest codes of behavior, guidelines for how and why we should relate to one another. What does your faith system teach about morality and the intent behind behavioral guidelines? How are moral failures viewed by your faith system?” Maher, A. B. (2006). Impact of Abuse on Inernalized God Images: Spiritual Assessment and Treatment Using Guided Imagery (C. Ford Sori, Ed.). In K. B. Helmke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  42. Exploring Your Spiritual History “Personal Encounter • What about your religious/spiritual background do you value? How did it serve you growing up and how does it continue to serve you now? Tell a story illustrating a meaningful event capturing these thoughts. • What aspects of your religious or spiritual upbringing do you now question? How are you still impacted by the limits of those teachings/experiences today? Tell a story illustrating hurtful, confusing, or empty experiences. • Who in your life has served as a spiritual mentor or role model? Describe that person and how he or she has impacted your life and current spiritual beliefs and expression.” Maher, A. B. (2006). Impact of Abuse on Inernalized God Images: Spiritual Assessment and Treatment Using Guided Imagery (C. Ford Sori, Ed.). In K. B. Helmke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  43. Exploring Your Spiritual History “Personal Encounter • Describe a person whose professed faith stood in contrast to his or her behavior. How have your life and spiritual beliefs been impacted by this observation? • Today we are increasingly aware of spiritual and religious diversity, both conservative and liberal expressions of a variety of faith orientations. This has led to much debate—and significant disagreement—about the influence of religion in all aspects of American culture and international affairs. What voices and opinions do you resonate with? What do you see as the cause and social consequences of these often contentious debates, both positive and negative? How do you think your own faith orientation or spiritual expression has been impacted?” Maher, A. B. (2006). Impact of Abuse on Inernalized God Images: Spiritual Assessment and Treatment Using Guided Imagery (C. Ford Sori, Ed.). In K. B. Helmke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  44. Professional Disclosure Sample Statements from Powell and Craig to include in professional disclosure process: • “For a generic recognition of religion: “This therapist is committed to taking an unbiased approach regardless of age, race, gender, or religious affiliations.” • For acknowledgment of religious beliefs: “Although this therapist is a practicing (therapist can fit in their religion or denominational affiliation, e.g., Roman Catholic, Christian, Reformed Jew), religious beliefs are not the primary focus of the therapy approach and the therapist will only be addressing spirituality when requested.” Maher, A. B. (2006). Impact of Abuse on Inernalized God Images: Spiritual Assessment and Treatment Using Guided Imagery (C. Ford Sori, Ed.). In K. B. Helmke (Ed.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  45. Professional Disclosure Sample Statements from Powell and Craig to include in professional disclosure process: • “For an alternative acknowledgment of religious beliefs: “Although Christian (or insert other religious or denomination background) Counseling is not the foundation of this therapist’s approach, faith and religion will be explored if the client so desires.” • For a strong statement of intent to bring spirituality into therapy: “This therapist is a practicing Christian (or insert other religious or denomination background) and will be using spirituality throughout the therapeutic process.” Powell, R. R., & Craig, S. E. (2006). Spirituality and Professional Disclosure. In K. L. Helmeke & C. Ford Sori (Eds.), The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counseling I. New York, New York: Hawthorn Press. doi:https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781135884710/

  46. Spirituality in Play and Family Therapy

  47. Spirituality in Counseling • Hausman (2004, as cited in Jackson, 2012) cites that there have been more than 200 studies that link spirituality and well being in children. • Landreth and Sweeney (1993, as cited in Jackson, 2012) state that the child’s mental well-being is directly related to their spirituality. • Mabe and Josephson (2004, as cited in Jackson, 2012) give core beliefs that shape the child’s view of: the purpose of life, meaning of suffering, and moral values • Religious coping skills, believing in a higher power who is control, meditation, seeking strength from God and religious counseling help the child cope with negative life events. • Religion give guidelines for healthy living. Jackson, S. A. (2012). Children, Spirituality and Counselling. American Journal of Applied Psychology,1(1), 1-5. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20120202.11

  48. Spirituality in Counseling • Therapist’s role is to pay attention to the whole child- mind, body, emotions and spirituality. • Therapist’s role is to help the parent pay attention to the whole child- mind, body emotions and spirituality. • Animal and Nature therapy have been cited to increase a child’s ability to increase empathy, nurturance, confidence, and connections with the environment. Jackson, S. A. (2012). Children, Spirituality and Counselling. American Journal of Applied Psychology,1(1), 1-5. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20120202.11

  49. Spirituality in Counseling • Josephson (2004 as cited in Jackson, 2012) propose we take a biopsychospiritual approach. This can be done through: having them develop a sacred place, journaling and storytelling, routines and rituals, prayer, forgiveness and hope. • Therapist must first enter the child’s world. • Play therapy is a good way of doing this as it is in itself a spiritual process (Landreth and Sweeney, 1993 as cited in Jackson, 2012) Jackson, S. A. (2012). Children, Spirituality and Counselling. American Journal of Applied Psychology,1(1), 1-5. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20120202.11

  50. Spirituality in Counseling • Landreth and Sweeney (1993, as cited in Jackson, 2012): “As children develop emotionally and psychologically, they also develop spiritually. Play promotes children’s understanding and use of symbolism Symbolism can lead to faith which is believing in things that are not seen. Faith is necessary for spiritual growth. The relationship between the child and the child-centered play therapist can also foster most all the decisions that are made in the therapy room and experience the consequences of those decisions. The child’s consequences will influence the child’s life and the more significant choices that he/she will make as an adult (p. 3) Jackson, S. A. (2012). Children, Spirituality and Counselling. American Journal of Applied Psychology,1(1), 1-5. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20120202.11