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  1. Overview • Introduction • Types of Climbing • Gear, Procedures, & Knots Overview • The Outdoor Class • Practice with Instructors

  2. Who Are the Texas Mountaineers? • Formed 1978 as part of Sierra Club • Separate Organization in 1988 • Nonprofit Organization • Conduct 2 Beginners and 1-2 Intermediate Classes each year • Emphasize standardized instruction and consensus Best-Safety-Practices • Instructors are a mix of highly experienced (20+ years) climbers and more recent class graduates

  3. Types of Climbing • Hiking and Trekking- trails, scrambling on non-technical rock and snow • Classic Mountaineering - rock climbing to 5.6, snow to 40° • Bouldering - difficult rock climbing close to ground no rope protection • Gym Climbing - climbing on artificial walls • Crag Climbing - routes 1 to 3 pitches on difficult rock • Top roping - fixed rope (beginner climb) • Sport - fixed anchors and protection • Traditional “Trad” - placing protection cams, stoppers … • Bigwall - climbing bigwalls Yosemite Half Dome • Free climbing - No aid using traditional methods • Aid climbing - climbing on fixed pieces, Clean aid uses only cams, stoppers …

  4. Texas Mountaineers Climbing • Scheduled (monthly Sep – May) trips to local crags for top-roping, trad and sport climbing (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas) • Individual members organize longer trips • New Classes for Sport Anchor Cleaning and Sport Leading • Trad Intermediate (how to second a leader) • Clinics for Anchor Building, Self-Rescue

  5. YDS Description Danger Factors Multi-pitch Grades 5.0 – 5.4 Two hands & feet for every move. Easy PG Falls not dangerous I Quick climb 5.5 - 5.6 Two hands & feet for every move, not obvious to beginner R Run out falls not serious II Two to three hours 5.7 One hand or foot missing Intermediate X Run out falls serious III Half day 5.8 Missing two, or missing one but strenuous S Serious unprotected subgrade Ex: 5.11 S9 runout 5.9 move on 5.11 protected crux IV All day 5.9 Only one hand and one foot V Two days 5.10 No obvious hand or foot Very Difficult VI Multiple days 5.11 Minute hand or foot 5.12 Unfeatured vertical surface or overhanging features Extremely Difficult 5.13 – 5.15 Overhanging surface with increasingly smaller features Rock Climb Ratings

  6. UIAA Germany I II III IV V- V V+ VI- VI VI+ VII- VII VII+ VIII- VIII VIII+ IX- IX IX+ X- X X+ XI- XI XI+ France 1 2 3 4 4+ 5a 5b 5c 6a 6a+ 6b 6b+ 6c 6c+ 7a 7a+ 7b 7b+ 7c 7c+ 8a 8a+ 8b 8b+ 8c 8c+ 9a USA (YDS) 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 510a 5.10b 5.10c 510d 5.11a 5.11b 5.11c 5.11d 5.12a 5.12b 5.12c 5.12d 5.13a 5.13b 5.13c 5.13d 5.14a 5.14b 5.14c 5.14d United Kingdom HD MS S VS HVS E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 E10 4c 5b 6a 6c 7b 5a 5c 6b 7a Australia 8,9 10,11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Alpine F PD AD D TD ED XD L WS ZS S SS ABO Bouldering VB V0 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 V11 V12 V13 V14 USA (YDS) 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 510a 5.10b 5.10c 510d 5.11a 5.11b 5.11c 5.11d 5.12a 5.12b 5.12c 5.12d 5.13a 5.13b 5.13c 5.13d 5.14a 5.14b 5.14c 5.14d UIAA Germany I II III IV V- V V+ VI- VI VI+ VII- VII VII+ VIII- VIII VIII+ IX- IX IX+ X- X X+ XI- XI XI+ Climb Ratings Around the World

  7. Required Gear • Bouldering • Rock Shoes • Chalk Bag • Crash Pad ( optional bouldering only) • Top Roping • Climbing Harness • Belay Device / Locking Carabiner • Climbing Rope • Anchor webbing / static rope / 3 oval Biners / 2 locker Biners

  8. Climbing Shoes Tight for regular shoe size Toes should lie flat Toes extend to very tip Should be comfortable Advanced 1 to 1/2 size less Lace ups Velcro Aggressive Sole Hard Sole

  9. Climbing Harnesses Child Full Body Belt extend 3” past buckle double back buckle auto locking buckle Gear Loops (always keep belay device, biners, autoblock on the harness) Belay Loop Leg Loops Adjustable – metal buckle

  10. Ropes • Static Ropes – 3 to 4% stretch • Top rope, anchors, hauling • Typically 3/8” or 7/16” diameter • Dynamic Ropes 6 to 10% stretch; 50, 60 & 70m long • Single Ropes 8.9 to 11 mm dia. • top rope, sport, trad, bigwall • Double/Half Ropes - 8.1 to 9 mm dia. • two ropes alternately clipped • tied together for long rappels • Twin Ropes 8.9 to 11 mm dia. • must be clipped together • tied together for long rappels

  11. Webbing, Accessory Cord, Slings, Quick Draws Accessory Cord 5 or 6 mm Prusik or Autoblock Tubular Webbing Slings TR Anchors Rappel Anchors Sewn Sling Slings Trad Runners

  12. Belay / Rappel Devices Screw Gate ATC Reverso Guide Large Locking Auto-Locking GriGri Mini Screw Gate

  13. Anchors • SRENE • Solid: Tree, Bolder, Bolt, Trad Protection • Redundant: more than one component • Equalized: each component shares the load • No Extension: a failure does not shock load the rest 120° 1000 lbs each 80° 700 lbs each 40° 540 lbs each 20° 500 lbs each 1000 lbs

  14. Other Anchor Pneumonics • SERENE Safe Equalized REdundant No Extension New AMGA acronym • ERNEST Equalized, Redundant, No Extension, Strong, Timely

  15. Belay Procedure • Before Climbing • Belayer checks climber is tied in through harness with figure 8 follow through • Climber checks belayers rope is through belay device and locking biner and locking biner is locked • Climber: On Belay (Are you ready to belay?) • Belayer: Belay On (The system is setup properly and I’m ready) • Climber: Climbing (The climber is actually stepping on the rock) • Belayer: Climb (Final confirmation the Belayer is ready)

  16. Belay Procedure Continued • During the climb • Belayer Never has hand off the belay brake side of the rope • Climber: Up Rope (Belayer has let a loop of rope hang below the climber, climber would like less slack, belayer takes up the rope (removes the slack)) • Climber: Take (climber is going to weight the rope, belayer tightens rope) • Climber: Slack Loosen the rope slightly. • Climber: Lower (Used only when top roping) Means lower me to the ground. Both hands on the brake side

  17. Other Commands • Climber: Off Belay On the ground or anchored at the top of the climb • Belayer: Belay Off • Rock (Used to warn anyone below of falling objects) • Climber: Watch Me Extra belayer attention required due to hard move – Belayer make sure belay is locked off • Climber: Falling (climber is falling)

  18. Always Perform a Safety Check Check the belayer Harness straps doubled back .. has attached the rope, belay device and carabiner clip in the correct place. Check the ‘live’ end of the rope is above the ‘dead’ end. and always check the screw gate on the carabiner has been locked tight.

  19. Always Perform a Safety Check Check the climber Harness doubled back .. has threaded the rope through the correct holes on their harness and always check the knot has been tied correctly.

  20. THE BELAY SEQUENCE Hand down to the knee Start Make a “ V ” One Two Three

  21. Knots • Figure 8 follow through • Tying rope to your harness • Double fisherman’s (grapevine) • Tying ends of rope or cord • Water Knot • Tying ends of webbing

  22. Knots • Prusik • Friction knot tying into rope • Ascending/Descending rope • Auto block (Shown) • Backing up Rappel • Clove Hitch (intermediate) • Tying into Anchor

  23. References Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills (8th Edition) Climbing Anchors Field Guide (How To Climb Series) by John Long and Bob Gaines How to Rock Climb!, 5th Edition (How To Climb Series) by John Long

  24. The Outdoor Class • Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge • Speed Limits Strictly Enforced 45/35 night • NO ALCOHOL (vehicles subject to search) • Wild Animals have Right-Of-Way • Do not bring your pets on this outing. • The Refuge is for the animals. Human recreation must not interfere. Climbing permitted only as long as climbers act responsibly.

  25. The Outdoor Class • Tent Camping at Camp Doris • Can arrive anytime Friday PM • Directions on Web Site (texasmountaineers.org) • Can stay in Lawton • Breakfast in Camp • Assemble at Group Parking Lot at 8:00 AM • Identify groups • Leave Group Parking Lot at 8:30 AM

  26. The Outdoor Class – Day One • Hike into Charon’s Gardens approx. 1 mile • Bring everything you need for the day • Rain gear/cold weather gear • Food and water (3 Liters min/person, more if hot) • Climbing Shoes, Harness, Carabiners, Cord • Help Carry Club Gear (ropes & webbing) • Leave No Trace • Take out everything you bring in (ALL trash) • Disturb as little as possible

  27. Outdoor Class – Day One • Anchor Set-up Demonstration by Instructors in Small Groups • Top-Roping • Climbing and Belay Practice • Slab, Crack, and Face Climbing • High-Angle Rappel • Group Rotates through 5-6 climbing stations • Break down climbs and hike out with your Group • Dinner – Restaurant in Lawton

  28. Outdoor Class – Day Two • Break Down Camp • Breakfast Options • Cook at Camp Doris • Drive to Ann’s Café near Mount Scott (leave camp about 7 AM) • Drive to the Top of Mount Scott about 8:30 AM • Hike down to the climbs • Parking lot is easily accessed from crag • Do as many climbs as you like, leave at your discretion

  29. Practical Instruction • Questions? • Break into Small Groups