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Overview . Brain Development Macroanatomy Microanatomy Plasticity. Brain - Gross Anatomy 1/3. Basic subdivisions Spinal Cord Brain Stem Cerebellum Cerebral Cortex Conscious thought Planning Language. Adult Brain - Gross Anatomy 2/3. Inputs

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overview
Overview
  • Brain
    • Development
    • Macroanatomy
    • Microanatomy
    • Plasticity
brain gross anatomy 1 3
Brain - Gross Anatomy1/3
  • Basic subdivisions
    • Spinal Cord
    • Brain Stem
    • Cerebellum
    • Cerebral Cortex
      • Conscious thought
      • Planning
      • Language
adult brain gross anatomy 2 3
Adult Brain - Gross Anatomy2/3
  • Inputs
    • Neurons with processes extending to the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.
  • Output
    • Movement – arms, legs, tongue, lips etc.
adult brain gross anatomy 3 3
Adult Brain - Gross Anatomy3/3
  • Other areas of cerebral cortex
    • Broca’s
    • Wernicke’s
    • Prefrontal
    • Temporal lobe
      • Hippocampus
adult brain microanatomy 1 2
Adult Brain - Microanatomy1/2
  • Neurons
    • Receiving - dendrites
    • Sending – axons
      • Can be very long
      • Can be covered with a fatty substance
  • Connections between neurons
    • Chemical released by one neuron
    • Same chemical is “sensed” by next neuron
    • Chemicals may vary depending on which neuron is sending the information.
adult brain microanatomy 2 2
Adult Brain - Microanatomy2/2
  • Connections between neurons
    • Chemical released by one neuron
    • Same chemical is “sensed” by next neuron
    • Chemicals may vary depending on which neuron is sending the information.
    • Chemical process and result of chemical processes can be affected by subcortical activity. What??
so what i want to know how the someone learns 1 2
So what. I want to know how the someone learns! 1/2
  • Connections between areas are pretty much fixed
  • A particular neuron may be connected to 100s of neurons in another or the same region.
how the brain learns 2 2
How the brain learns! 2/2
  • The connections of given sets of cells cause a group of cells to be active (network) and that particular network represents an idea, object, word.
  • Badly formed networks or randomly active cells can lead to problems in how a particular network is recognized. e.g. inability to identify or produce sounds, syllabi or sentences.
  • Previous network activation can influence which networks are subsequently activated (context).
now i know why someone doesn t know something but how does one learn
Now I know why someone doesn’t know something but how does one learn?
  • Connections between cells can be changed and therefore new networks can be established. (weights)
  • Changes are the result of repetition within a particular context.
  • The larger and more distinctive the context, the easier it is to learn.
  • Be wary of interference!
developing brain and language
Developing Brain and Language
  • During development gross connectivity can be affected by environment, genetics, or chemicals.
  • Connections in the developing brain are the result of physical cues and activity caused by the environment.
  • Fine tuning of connections can only occur after the major connections have been established. Delayed
plasticity
Plasticity
  • Behavioral level
  • Gross Anatomy level
  • Microanatomical level
  • Functional Plasticity
  • Continuum
extra references
Extra References
  • http://www.bbsonline.org/documents/a/00/00/04/95/bbs00000495-00/bbs.pulvermueller.html
  • Digital Anatomist: http://www9.biostr.washington.edu/cgi-bin/DA/imageform