Chemical Signaling. Chemical Communication. Briefly describe the two major forms of intercellular communication in animal bodies. Which organ system s are responsible for this communication? Describe the type of intercellular communication called “ neuroendocrine ”.
Briefly describe the two major forms of intercellular communication in animal bodies. Which organ systems are responsible for this communication?
Describe the type of intercellular communication called “neuroendocrine”.
What defines a “target tissue”?
Describe the body functions typically coordinated by endocrine communication.
If the thyroid gland is
removed from a mammal,
continued survival depends
on replacement of thyroid
hormones, T3 and T4.
It is not necessary to
“Links” between the
and the cytoskeleton.
Integrins are important in morphogenesis during embryonic development.
In order for this to occur, what must be true about the distribution of ions?
How might the influx of ions induce
a biochemical response within a cell?
What other mechanisms of controlling
ion channels are there?
How is this mechanism of signal transduction different from one in
which proteins are made after reception of the signal molecule(s)?
Compare and contrast receptor enzymes and G-protein-linked reception and transduction of extracellular chemical messages?
How is the intracellular
What are the roles of energy nucleotides (nucleoside triphosphates) in
What are the chemical characteristics of the signal molecule?
… of the receptor?
What do protein kinases do?
If this is the second
messenger, where is
the first messenger?
What are the two general ways that a cell may respond to an
extracellular chemical message (one that cannot enter the cell)?
with specific receptors
are either excitatory (+)
or inhibitory (-).
How would the cellular response be different in this model, if the G-protein were inhibitory?
How does the
contribute to the
Why is the cell
What is the first messenger in this pathway?
Under what circumstances is this signal released?
Can you explain the advantage of this type of signal transduction in this example?
First Messengers may be
Second Messengers may be
All multicellular animals utilize neurosecretory cells for internal chemical signaling
Many so-called endocrine glands contain neuro-secretory cells, …
Which division of the mammalian nervous system is active during the stress response? Describe the collaboration between the endocrine and nervous systems in this example.
… and neurons may secrete hormones.
Describe the structural and functional connections between the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus.
Several hormones may interact to produce a complex result.
Discuss one other example of the interaction between the nervous and endocrine systems; and
….between two or more hormones.
As a hormone that stimulates the release of another hormone, Brain Hormone is correctly classified as a _______ hormone.
Growth w/o metamorphosis